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5.1: Habitatni yo'qotish nima? - Biologiya

5.1: Habitatni yo'qotish nima? - Biologiya



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5.1: Habitatni yo'qotish nima?

Asalarilarimizni qutqarish: yashash muhitini yo'qotishning oqibatlari

Dunyodagi o'simlik turlarining ko'pchiligi polenini boshqa o'simliklarga o'tkazish uchun hayvonlarga tayanadi. Bu hayvon changlatuvchilarning shubhasiz malikasi - dunyo bo'ylab 30 mingga yaqin turdan tashkil topgan asalarichi, ularning kundalik parvozlari dunyodagi gullaydigan o'simliklarning yarmidan ko'pini ko'paytirishga yordam beradi.

Biroq, so'nggi yillarda AQSh va Evropada asalarilar populyatsiyasining misli ko'rilmagan va tushunarsiz kamayishi ekotizimlar salomatligi va ekinlarning barqarorligini xavf ostiga qo'ydi.

Amerika Ekologik Jamiyatining yillik yig'ilishida og'zaki sessiyada olimlarning fanlararo guruhi asalarilarning yashash joylarini yo'qotish muammosini keng miqyosda o'rganib, asalarilarni o'z yashash joylarida saqlab qolish uchun nima qilish mumkinligini aniqlashadi. “Changlovchilar va changlanishning landshaft miqyosidagi ekologiyasi” deb nomlangan sessiyada AQSh, Yevropa va Osiyodagi institutlarning informatika, matematika va ekologiya sohalaridagi olimlari ishtirok etadi.

Koloniyalarning qulashi buzilishi deb nomlanuvchi eng soʻnggi va sarlavhali hodisa kattalar asalarilarning asalarichilar uyalaridan gʻoyib boʻlib, asalari lichinkalarini qoʻriqchilarisiz qoldirishi bilan tavsiflanadi. Asalarilar sonining kamayishi fermerlarni ayniqsa bezovta qilmoqda, chunki barcha oziq-ovqat ekinlarining taxminan 80 foizi asalarilar va ularning yovvoyi amakivachchalari tomonidan changlanadi.

Iqlim o'zgarishi, parazitlar, kasalliklar, pestitsidlarga haddan tashqari ta'sir qilish va mos yashash muhitini yo'qotish kabi asalarilarning boshqariladigan kamayishiga ko'plab sabablarni taklif qilishdi. Ushbu og'zaki mashg'ulotda, olimlar o'zlarining e'tiborini mahalliy va yovvoyi asalarilarga qaratadilar, ular "ndash" yoki "pasayish" ga duch keladimi yoki yo'qligini aniqlaydilar.

Sessiya tashkilotchilaridan biri, Bryn Mawr kollejidan Neal Uilyams, sessiya natijasida ko'plab fanlar g'oyalarini sintez qilishiga umid qiladi. "Biz bilishni xohlaymiz: biz peyzaj modellariga bashoratli tarzda qaray olamizmi va ulardan tabiiy populyatsiyalar va ular ekinlarga changlatuvchi xizmatlarni qanday etkazib berishlari haqida ma'lumot berish uchun foydalanishimiz mumkinmi?" — deb so‘radi u.

Ratjers universiteti professori Rachael Vinfri asalarilarning kamayishidan "biologik sug'urta" sifatida mahalliy asalarilarning sog'lig'iga alohida qiziqish bildirmoqda. "Dunyodagi mahalliy o'simliklarning yarmidan ko'pi hayvonlarning changlatuvchilariga muhtoj va ularning aksariyati asalarilar", deydi u. "Mahalliy changlatuvchilar asalarilar uchun zaxira reja bo'lib xizmat qiladi."

Uinfri arilar populyatsiyasining soni va xilma -xilligi bo'yicha chop etilgan 50 dan ortiq tadqiqotlar ma'lumotlarini birlashtirgan tadqiqotni taqdim etadi. Uning aniqlashicha, inson taraqqiyoti, hayvonlarni boqish, o'tin kesish va ekin maydonlari tufayli juda bo'laklarga bo'linadigan hududlarda asalarilar populyatsiyalari kamroq va asalarilar soni tabiiy yoki minimal darajada buzilgan hududlarga qaraganda kamroq bo'lgan.

Olimlar, shuningdek, asalarilar jamoasini yanada yaxshiroq tushunish uchun texnologik usullardan foydalanmoqdalar. Buyuk Britaniyadagi Ekseter universiteti aspiranti Daniel Chalk sun'iy intellektli kompyuter modeli yordamida yovvoyi bambuklarning parvoz modellarini bashorat qildi. Uning modeli foydalidir, chunki u turli landshaftlarda asalarilar qanday em-xashak izlashi yoki oziq-ovqat manbalarini izlashini bashorat qila oladi.

"Muhimi, bizning modelimiz asalarilarning katta hajmdagi oziq-ovqat qidirish muhitidagi xatti-harakatlarini bashorat qilishga qodir, bu erda em-xashak qidirish joylarini katta ekin maydonlari deb hisoblash mumkin", deydi Chalk. Uning so'zlariga ko'ra, uning modeli olimlarga odamlar tomonidan yuzaga kelgan er buzilishi asalari turlarining boyligi va zichligiga qanday ta'sir qilishini tushunishga yordam beradi.

Uilyams mahalliy bumblebelarning landshaft miqyosidagi ekologiyasini tushunish uchun eksperimental yondashuvdan foydalangan. U va uning hamkasblari Kaliforniya markazida 38 ta asalarichilik koloniyalarini tashkil etishdi, ular buzilmagan cherkovdan organik va an'anaviy fermalargacha. Yoz oylarida ular koloniya tabiiy hududlardan qanchalik uzoq bo'lsa, ishchi asalari shunchalik kam bo'lishini aniqladilar. Uilyams jamoasi, shuningdek, asalarilar har doim ham ekinlardan, ham mahalliy o'simliklardan gulchang to'plashini aniqladilar. Uilyamsning aytishicha, ekin maydonlari asalarilarning butun mavsumida gullamaydi. Shu sababli, qishloq xo'jaligi bilan aralash tabiiy hududlarga ega bo'lgan mozaik landshaft asalarilar koloniyalarini sog'lom saqlash uchun muhim ahamiyatga ega.

"Bugungi manzara tabiiy va boshqariladigan", deydi Uilyams. "Bu nafaqat qishloq xo'jaligi aralashgan tabiiy hududlar matritsasi, balki peyzajdagi barcha maydonlardan foydalangan holda hayvonlar bilan bezatilgan choyshab."

Hikoya manbasi:

Materiallar tomonidan taqdim etilgan Amerika ekologik jamiyati. Eslatma: Tarkib uslub va uzunlikka qarab tahrirlanishi mumkin.


Biologik xilma-xillikka tahdidlar

Biologik xilma-xillikka asosiy tahdidlar:

1. Habitatning yo'q qilinishi/O'rmonlarning kesilishi
2. Taqdim etilgan va invaziv turlar
3. Genetik ifloslanish
4. Haddan tashqari ekspluatatsiya
5. Gibridlanish
6. Iqlim o'zgarishi
7. Kasalliklar
8. Odamlarning ko'pligi

(1). Habitatni yo'q qilish/o'rmonlarni kesish:

Ø Yashash muhitining yo'q bo'lib ketishi va o'rmonlarning kesilishi yo'q bo'lib ketishida asosiy rol o'ynadi

Ø Habitatning yo'qolishi tabiiy yashash joylari inson ehtiyojlari uchun o'zgartirilganda sodir bo'ladi

Ø Yashash muhitini yo'q qilishga olib keladigan omillar: aholining haddan tashqari ko'payishi, o'rmonlarning kesilishi, ifloslanish va global isish

Ø Yashash joyining kattaligi va turlar soni muntazam ravishda bog'liq

Ø Jismoniy jihatdan kattaroq turlar va pastki kengliklarda yoki o'rmonlarda yoki okeanlarda yashovchilar yashash joylarining qisqarishiga ko'proq sezgir.

Ø Yashash joylarining vayron bo'lishining asosiy sabablari quyidagilardir: keng ko'lamli sanoat va tijorat faoliyati, konchilik, qoramol boqish, tijorat baliq ovlash, qishloq xo'jaligi ekinlari va qishloq xo'jaligi, to'g'on qurilishi va zo'ravonlik.

Ø Yashash joylarining yo'qolishi yashash muhitining parchalanishiga olib kelishi mumkin

Ø Habitatning parchalanishi: katta tabiiy yashash joylari inson qurilishi faoliyati tufayli parchalanib ketgan

Ø Habitatning parchalanishi fillar kabi yirik va hududiy hayvonlar uchun juda muhimdir

Ø Bu hayvonlarning nasl berish xatti -harakatlari ular yashaydigan yashash muhitining kattaligiga bog'liq

Eichornia suv havzasi ustida ortiqcha o'sish

(2). Taqdim etilgan va invaziv turlar:

Ø Tog'lar yoki dengizlar kabi katta to'siqlar ushbu to'siqlar bilan o'ralgan hududdagi xilma-xillikni qo'llab-quvvatlaydi.

Ø Bu allopatrik spetsifikatsiya orqali mustaqil evolyutsiyani ta'minlash orqali

Ø invaziv turlar: tabiiy to'siqlarni buzadigan, odatda ularni uzoqlashtiradigan turlar

Ø Bosqinlar xilma -xillikni kamaytirishi mumkin

Ø Invaziv turlar mahalliy turlarni yo'q qiladi:

@. Mahalliy turlarning resurslaridan foydalanish

@. Mahalliy turlar bilan raqobatlashib

@. Mahalliy turlarga kasallik sabab bo'lishi

(3). Genetik ifloslanish:

Ø Endemik turlarga genetik ifloslanish jarayoni orqali tahdid solishi mumkin

Ø Genetik ifloslanish nazoratsiz duragaylash natijasida yuzaga keladi

Ø Genetik ifloslanish sabablari: individlar genomini homogenlashtirish va mahalliy genomlarni almashtirish.

Ø Gibridizatsiya - bu introduksiya va invaziyaning nojo'ya ta'siri

Ø Genetik ifloslanish, ko'proq uchraydigan turlar uchun ko'proq zarar keltiradi

Ø Ko'p turlar noyob turlarni yo'q qilish orqali darhol yangi hududlarni mustamlaka qiladi

(4). Haddan tashqari ekspluatatsiya

Ø Haddan tashqari ekspluatatsiya resurslar barqaror bo'lmagan darajada iste'mol qilinganida sodir bo'ladi

Ø Biologik xilma-xillikning haddan tashqari ekspluatatsiyasi (1) shaklida sodir bo'ladi. Overhunting, (2). Haddan tashqari kesish, (3). Qishloq xo'jaligida tuproqning yomon saqlanishi va (4). Yovvoyi tabiatning noqonuniy savdosi

Ø Yovvoyi tabiatning noqonuniy savdosi "Osiyodagi biologik xilma -xillikka" eng katta tahdiddir

Ø Dunyo baliqlarining 25% i hozirgi biomassasi barqaror massadan kam bo'ladigan darajada ko'p ovlangan.

(5). Gibridlanish: (qardosh bo'lmagan o'simliklarning birlashishi)

Ø Yashil inqilob hosildorlikni oshirish uchun hibridizatsiyani ommalashtirdi

Ø Gibrid zotlari rivojlangan mamlakatlarda paydo bo'lgan, keyinchalik rivojlanayotgan mamlakatlarda mahalliy navlar bilan duragaylangan

Ø Bu mahalliy iqlim va kasalliklarga chidamli yuqori mahsuldor shtammlar yaratish uchun

Ø Yuqori mahsuldor zotlar yovvoyi turlarda genetik eroziya va genlarning ifloslanishiga sabab bo'ladi

Ø Genetik eroziya va genetik ifloslanish noyob genotiplarni yo'q qilishi mumkin

Ø Bu yashirin inqirozni keltirib chiqaradi, bu bizning oziq -ovqat xavfsizligimiz yoki sog'ligimizga jiddiy tahdid solishi mumkin

(6). Iqlim o'zgarishi:

Ø Global isish global biologik xilma-xillikka asosiy tahdidlardan biridir

Ø Agar global isish hozirgi tendentsiyada davom etsa, marjon riflari (biologik xilma-xillikning issiq nuqtalari) 20-40 yil ichida yo'qoladi.

Ø Atmosferadagi karbonat angidrid konsentratsiyasi o'simliklar morfologiyasiga ta'sir qiladi

Ø Yuqori karbonat angidrid konsentratsiyasi okeanlarni kislotalaydi

Ø 2004 yilda to'rt qit'ada o'tkazilgan xalqaro hamkorlikda o'tkazilgan tadqiqot global isish tufayli 2050 yilga borib turlarning 10 foizi yo'q bo'lib ketishini taxmin qildi.

Ø Iqlim o'zgarishi yomg'irning o'zgarishiga olib keladi

Ø Iqlim o'zgarishi ko'chib yuruvchi hayvonlar va qushlarga ham ta'sir qiladi

Ø Qutbli va tog'li hududlarda biologik xilma -xillik iqlim o'zgarishiga ko'proq moyil

Ø Kasalliklar turlarni erdan yo'q qilishi mumkin

Ø Kasallikning sababi tabiiy yoki antropologik bo'lishi mumkin

Ø Inson faoliyati ba'zida tabiiy kasalliklarning og'irligini tezlashtiradi

Ø Taqdim etilgan turlar ular bilan birga patogenlarni olib yurishi mumkin

Ø Hayvonlardagi virusli epidemiyalar biologik xilma-xillikka asosiy tahdiddir

Ø Hayvonlar o'simliklarga qaraganda kasalliklarga ko'proq moyil

Ø Asirlikda bo'lgan hayvonlar ham kasalliklarga moyil

Tafsilotlar uchun rasmni bosing (Vikipediya manbasi)

(8). Aholining haddan tashqari ko'pligi:

Ø Dunyo aholisi (2015 yil iyul holatiga ko'ra) 7,3 mlrd

Ø 1950 yilda aholisi 2,5 mlrd

Ø 21 -asrda aholi soni 9 milliardga etadi

Ø Aholi sonining ko'payishi resurslarning haddan tashqari sarflanishiga olib keladi

Ø Kelgusida o'rmon maydoni qisqaradi

Ø Aholining ko'payishi oxir -oqibat ifloslanishning oshishiga olib keladi

Ø Shunday qilib, aholining portlashi biologik xilma -xillikning kamayishining asosiy omilidir

Ø Aholining ko'payishi yuqorida aytib o'tilgan biologik xilma -xillikning boshqa 7 ta asosiy tahdidini keltirib chiqarishi mumkin


Tarkibi

Yashash muhiti vayron bo'lganda, mahalliy o'simliklar, hayvonlar va boshqa organizmlarning tashish qobiliyati pasayadi, shuning uchun populyatsiyalar kamayadi, ba'zan esa yo'q bo'lib ketish darajasiga qadar. [6]

Habitatning yo'qolishi, ehtimol, organizmlar va biologik xilma -xillik uchun eng katta tahdiddir. [7] Temple (1986) yo'qolib ketish xavfi ostida turgan qush turlarining 82 foizi yashash joylarini yo'qotish xavfi ostida ekanligini aniqladi. Amfibiyalarning ko'p turlariga mahalliy yashash joylari yo'qolishi xavfi tug'iladi [8] va ba'zi turlar hozir faqat o'zgartirilgan yashash muhitida ko'paymoqda. [9] Cheklangan hududga ega boʻlgan endemik organizmlar yashash muhitini yoʻq qilishdan eng koʻp zarar koʻradi, chunki bu organizmlar dunyoning boshqa hech bir joyida uchramaydi va shu sababli tiklanish imkoniyati kamroq boʻladi. Ko'pgina endemik organizmlar o'zlarining yashashlari uchun juda o'ziga xos talablarga ega, ular faqat ma'lum bir ekotizim ichida topilishi mumkin, bu esa ularning yo'q bo'lib ketishiga olib keladi. Yo'qolib ketish yashash joylari vayron bo'lganidan ancha keyin sodir bo'lishi mumkin, bu hodisa qarzning yo'q bo'lib ketishi deb nomlanadi. Habitatning yo'q bo'lib ketishi, shuningdek, ma'lum organizm populyatsiyalari sonini kamaytirishi mumkin. Bu genetik xilma -xillikni kamaytirishi va, ehtimol, bepusht yoshlarni tug'ilishiga olib kelishi mumkin, chunki bu organizmlar o'z populyatsiyalari yoki boshqa turlar bilan bog'liq bo'lgan organizmlar bilan birlashish ehtimoli yuqori bo'ladi. Eng mashhur misollardan biri, bir vaqtlar Sichuanning ko'plab hududlarida topilgan Xitoyning yirik pandasiga ta'siri. Endi u faqat 20 -asrda keng tarqalgan o'rmonlarning kesilishi natijasida mamlakatning janubi -g'arbiy qismidagi bo'lak va alohida hududlarda uchraydi. [10]

Hududning yashash joylari vayron bo'lganida, turlarning xilma -xilligi yashash joylari bo'yicha mutaxassislar va mutaxassislarning kombinatsiyasidan, asosan, generalist turlardan tashkil topgan populyatsiyaga o'tadi. [3] Invaziv turlar ko'pincha turli xil yashash joylarida omon qolishga qodir bo'lgan generalistlardir. [11] Iqlim oʻzgarishiga olib keladigan yashash joylarining buzilishi yoʻqolib ketish chegarasiga mos keladigan turlar muvozanatini qoplaydi, bu esa yoʻqolib ketish ehtimolini oshiradi. [12]

Habitatning parchalanishi tabiatni muhofaza qilish muammolarining asosiy sababidir. Yashash joylarining parchalanishi ko'plab turlar uchun yashash joyini yo'qotish bilan bog'liqligini aniqlash uchun ko'plab tajribalar o'tkazildi. Ular butun dunyo bo'ylab 20 ga yaqin tajriba o'tkazilganligini ko'rsatadigan so'rov o'tkazdilar. Bu tajribalarning asosiy maqsadi ekologiyaning umumiy muammolarini ko'rsatish yoki hatto tushuntirish edi. Parchalanish tajribalari uzoq vaqt davomida saqlanib kelinmoqda, chunki ular bo'linishning bir qismi bo'lgan sohalarda o'z ta'sirini ko'rsatdi. Ko'rinib turibdiki, kichikroq yashash joylari ko'proq turlarni saqlaydigan katta maydonlarga emas, balki kamroq turlarga bog'liq bo'lishi kutilgan. [13]

Habitatning yo'qolishi yashash muhitining bo'linishidan ta'sirlangan eng katta narsalardan biri bo'ldi, lekin bu hududning biologik xilma -xilligi haqida gap ketganda, turlar ichida unchalik ko'p narsa yo'q. Parchalanish juda katta ta'sir ko'rsatdi, chunki bu turlarning tabiiy ravishda o'rgangan narsalariga ega bo'lishiga imkon bermaydi. Bu turlarni izolyatsiya qiladi, ular yashashi mumkin bo'lgan hududni qisqartiradi va ko'plab ekologik chegaralarga ega. Ko'pgina turlar o'z boyligini yo'qotishni boshlaganligini ko'rsata boshlagan tadqiqotlar mavjud. Tadqiqotlar davomida ular, shuningdek, abiotik va biotik parametrlarning o'zgarishi ekologiyaga haqiqiy yashash muhitidan ko'ra ko'proq ta'sir ko'rsatganini bilib oldilar. Ular, shuningdek, turlar bir bo'shliqqa to'planganida, bu turning yo'q bo'lib ketishiga olib keladigan xulosaga kelishdi. Endi parchalanishga kelsak, bu turlarga katta ta'sir qilishning katta sababi sifatida qaralishi mumkin. [14]

Yirtqichlarning populyatsiyasiga ta'sir qiluvchi yirtqichlar Tartibga solish

So'nggi paytlarda yashash joylarining yo'q qilinishi ko'plab turlarning yo'q qilinishining asosiy sababi bo'ldi. Ba'zida hudud kichik vayronagarchilikka olib kelishi mumkin, ammo vaqt o'tishi bilan bu yo'q bo'lib ketishning ko'payishiga olib keladi. Ammo bu yo'q bo'lishga olib keladigan yagona narsa emas. Buning boshqa ko'plab sabablari bor, lekin ularning barchasi yashash muhitining yo'qolishi bilan bog'liq. Uch turdagi tizimda ko'rib turganimizdek, ularning yashash muhitini yo'qotish sababi nafaqat tabiiy, balki ma'lum bir turning haddan tashqari ko'p bo'lishi bilan bog'liq. Agar bizda x, y va z turlari borligini aytsak, yirtqich bo'lgan z turlari yo'q bo'lib ketsa, u endi o'ljani ko'paytiradi, bu esa aholining haddan tashqari ko'payishiga olib kelishi mumkin. Va ularning har xil turlari ko'p bo'lsa, bu ularni o'z resurslaridan ortiqcha foydalanishga yoki hatto ulardan foydalanishga olib kelishi mumkin. Ko'pgina turlarning yashash joylari tabiiy resurslarga bog'liq bo'lganligi sababli, ulardan haddan tashqari foydalanish natijasida ular tugaydi va yashash joylarining ko'p qismini yo'qotishiga olib keladi. Faqat bu emas, balki hozir yo'q bo'lib ketgan turlar hammasini tubdan o'zgartiradi. [15]

Vayron bo'lish va parchalanish turlarning yo'q bo'lib ketishidagi eng muhim 2 omil hisoblanadi. Hajmi kamayishi va yashash muhitining izolyatsiyasining ko'payishi salbiy ta'sirini parchalanish bilan noto'g'ri talqin qiladilar, lekin aslida ular aholiga nisbatan katta ta'sir ko'rsatadi. Parchalanish va umuman aholi omon qolishiga hech qanday ta'sir ko'rsatmaydi yoki salbiy ta'sir ko'rsatmaydi. Habitatning parchalanishi odatda birgalikda sodir bo'lganligi sababli, qaysi jarayonning yo'q bo'lib ketishiga katta ta'sir ko'rsatishi aniq emas. Yashash joyining boshqa yo'qolishiga yo'l qo'ymaslik uchun, biz baribir parchalanishni yumshatish yoki kamaytirishga ishonch hosil qilishimiz kerak. Izolyatsiya sonining kamayishi va parchalanish bilan yashash joylarining yo'qolishi atrof-muhitga salbiy ta'sir ko'rsatadigan tarzda bog'liq. [16]

Biologik xilma -xillik nuqtalari asosan tropik mintaqalar bo'lib, ularda endemik turlarning yuqori kontsentratsiyasi mavjud bo'lib, barcha nuqtalar birlashtirilganda dunyodagi quruqlikdagi turlarning yarmidan ko'pini o'z ichiga olishi mumkin. [18] Ushbu issiq nuqtalar yashash joylarini yo'qotish va yo'q qilishdan aziyat chekmoqda. Odamlar va aholi zichligi yuqori bo'lgan tabiiy yashash joylarining ko'p qismi allaqachon yo'q qilingan (WRI, 2003). Yashash joylari o'ta vayron bo'lgan orollarga Yangi Zelandiya, Madagaskar, Filippin va Yaponiya kiradi. [19] Janubiy va Sharqiy Osiyo, xususan, Xitoy, Hindiston, Malayziya, Indoneziya va Yaponiya va Gʻarbiy Afrikaning koʻpgina hududlarida tabiiy yashash uchun kam joy ajratadigan juda zich odam populyatsiyasi mavjud. Sohil bo'yidagi shaharlarga yaqin bo'lgan dengiz hududlari, shuningdek, marjon riflari yoki boshqa dengiz yashash muhitining buzilishiga duch keladi. Bu hududlarga Osiyo va Afrikaning sharqiy sohillari, Janubiy Amerikaning shimoliy sohillari, Karib dengizi va unga aloqador orollar kiradi. [19]

Qo'l-yo'lakay o'tishi mumkin bo'lgan barqaror bo'lmagan qishloq xo'jaligi yoki beqaror hukumatlar odatda yashash joylarini yo'q qilish tezligiga duch keladilar. Markaziy Amerika, Afrikaning Sahroi-Sahroi va Janubiy Amerikaning Amazoniya tropik o'rmonlari qishloq xo'jaligining noaniq usullari va/yoki hukumatning noto'g'ri boshqaruvi bo'lgan asosiy mintaqalardir. [19]

Qishloq xo'jaligi mahsulotlari yuqori bo'lgan hududlarda yashash muhiti eng ko'p vayron bo'ladi. AQShda mahalliy o'simliklarning 25% dan kamrog'i Sharq va O'rta G'arbning ko'p joylarida qoladi. [20] Butun Evropada er maydonining atigi 15% inson faoliyati ta'sirida qolmagan. [19]

Tropik tropik o'rmonlar yashash muhitini yo'q qilishga eng katta e'tiborni qaratdi. Dastlab butun dunyo bo'ylab mavjud bo'lgan taxminan 16 million kvadrat kilometr tropik yomg'ir o'rmonlarining yashash joyidan bugungi kunda 9 million kvadrat kilometrdan kamrog'i qolgan. [19] Hozirgi vaqtda o'rmonlarni kesish tezligi yiliga 160 ming kvadrat kilometrni tashkil etadi, bu har yili o'rmonlarning yashash muhitining taxminan 1% yo'qotilishiga teng. [21]

Boshqa o'rmon ekotizimlari tropik yomg'ir o'rmonlari kabi ko'p yoki ko'proq halokatga uchragan. Dehqonchilik va daraxt kesish uchun o'rmonlarning kesilishi mo''tadil keng bargli o'rmonlarning kamida 94 foizini jiddiy ravishda buzdi, ko'plab eski o'rmonzorlar inson faoliyati tufayli avvalgi maydonining 98 foizdan ko'prog'ini yo'qotdi. [19] Tropik bargli quruq o'rmonlarni tozalash va yoqish osonroq va tropik yomg'ir o'rmonlariga qaraganda qishloq xo'jaligi va chorvachilik uchun ko'proq mos keladi, shuning uchun Markaziy Amerikaning Tinch okeani sohilidagi quruq o'rmonlarning 0,1% dan kamrog'i va Madagaskarda 8% dan kamrog'i saqlanib qolgan. darajada. [21]

Tekislik va cho'l hududlari ozroq darajada buzilgan. Dunyodagi quruq yerlarning atigi 10-20%i, jumladan, moʻʼtadil oʻtloqlar, savannalar va butazorlar, butazorlar va bargli oʻrmonlar maʼlum darajada degradatsiyaga uchragan. [22] Ammo erning 10-20% ini cho'llanish natijasida odamlar cho'llarga aylantirgan mavsumiy quruqliklarning taxminan 9 million kvadrat kilometrini tashkil etadi. [19] Boshqa tomondan, Shimoliy Amerikaning baland bo'yli o'tloqlarida qishloq xo'jaligi erlariga aylanmagan tabiiy muhitning 3% dan kamrog'i qolgan. [23]

Suv -botqoq erlar va dengiz hududlari yashash joylarining yuqori darajada vayron bo'lishiga duch kelgan. So'nggi 200 yil ichida AQShdagi 50% botqoq erlar yo'q qilindi. [20] Evropaning 60% dan 70% gacha bo'lgan botqoqliklari butunlay vayron qilingan. [24] Buyuk Britaniyada qirg'oq bo'yidagi turar joy va sayyohlikka bo'lgan talabning o'sishi kuzatildi, bu oxirgi 60 yil ichida dengizda yashash muhitining pasayishiga olib keldi. Dengiz sathining ko'tarilishi va haroratning ko'tarilishi Buyuk Britaniya dengiz ekotizimida tuproq eroziyasi, qirg'oqlarni suv bosishi va sifatni yo'qotishiga olib keldi. [25] Dengiz qirg'oqlari hududlarining taxminan beshdan bir qismi (20%) odamlar tomonidan juda o'zgartirilgan. [26] Marjon riflarining beshdan bir qismi ham vayron boʻlgan, yana beshdan biri haddan tashqari baliq ovlash, ifloslanish va invaziv turlar tufayli jiddiy vayron boʻlgan Filippindagi marjon riflarining 90 foizigina vayron qilingan. [27] Nihoyat, butun dunyo boʻylab mangrov ekotizimlarining 35% dan ortigʻi yoʻq qilingan. [27]

Vulkanizm, yong'in va iqlim o'zgarishi kabi tabiiy jarayonlar natijasida yashash joylarining vayron bo'lishi fotoalbom yozuvlarida yaxshi hujjatlashtirilgan. [2] Bir tadqiqot shuni ko'rsatadiki, 300 million yil oldin Evropada tropik o'rmonlarning yashash joylarining bo'linishi amfibiyalarning xilma -xilligini yo'qotishiga olib kelgan, biroq quruq iqlim sudralib yuruvchilar orasida xilma -xillikni keltirib chiqardi. [2]

Odamlar taʼsirida yashash muhitini yoʻq qilish yerlarning oʻrmonlardan ekin maydonlariga aylanishi, shaharlarning kengayishi, infratuzilmaning rivojlanishi va yer xususiyatlarining boshqa antropogen oʻzgarishlarini oʻz ichiga oladi. Yashash joylarining degradatsiyasi, parchalanishi va ifloslanishi - bu odamlar tomonidan yashash muhitining yo'q qilinishining bir tomoni bo'lib, ular yashash joylarining yo'q qilinishiga olib kelmaydi, lekin ularning yashash muhitining buzilishiga olib keladi. Cho'llanish, o'rmonlarning kesilishi va marjon riflarining tanazzuli - bu o'sha hududlar uchun yashash joylarini yo'q qilishning o'ziga xos turlari (cho'llar, o'rmonlar, marjon qoyalari). [ iqtibos kerak ]

Geist va Lambin (2002) tropik o'rmonlarning kesilishining yaqin va asosiy sabablaridagi har qanday naqshlarni aniqlash uchun tropik o'rmon qoplamining aniq yo'qotishlari bo'yicha 152 ta amaliy tadqiqotlarni baholadilar. Ularning natijalari, har bir parametr muhim omil bo'lgan misollar bo'yicha foizlarda olingan, yaqin va asosiy sabablar eng muhim bo'lgan miqdoriy ustuvorlikni ta'minlaydi. Yaqin sabablar qishloq xo'jaligini kengaytirish (96%), infratuzilmani kengaytirish (72%) va yog'och qazib olish (67%) kabi keng toifalarga bo'lindi. Shuning uchun, ushbu tadqiqotga ko'ra, o'rmonlarning qishloq xo'jaligiga aylanishi tropik o'rmonlarni kesish uchun mas'ul bo'lgan erdan foydalanishning asosiy o'zgarishi hisoblanadi. Maxsus toifalar o'rmonlarning kesilishining o'ziga xos sabablari to'g'risida qo'shimcha ma'lumotni ochib beradi: transportning kengayishi (64%), yog'ochdan ishlov berish (52%), doimiy ishlov berish (48%), chorvachilik (46%), siljish (kesish va kuyish). (41%), yordamchi dehqonchilik (40%) va maishiy foydalanish uchun yoqilg'i o'tinlarini qazib olish (28%). Bir natija shuni ko'rsatadiki, o'rim -yig'imning o'zgarishi dunyoning barcha mintaqalarida o'rmonlarning kesilishining asosiy sababi emas, transport uzayishi (shu jumladan yangi yo'llar qurilishi) o'rmonlarni kesish uchun mas'ul bo'lgan eng yaqin yagona omil. [29]

Global isish tahriri

Issiqxona ta'siridan kelib chiqadigan global haroratning ko'tarilishi, yashash joylarining yo'q qilinishiga olib keladi, bu esa qutb ayig'i kabi turli turlarga xavf tug'diradi. [30] Muzliklarning erishi dengiz sathining ko'tarilishiga va butun dunyo bo'ylab tabiiy yashash joylari va turlariga xavf soladigan toshqinlarga yordam beradi. [31] [32]

Haydovchilar tahrir

Yuqorida qayd etilgan faoliyatlar yashash muhitini yo'q qilishning proksimal yoki bevosita sabablari bo'lsa-da, ular yashash muhitini haqiqatda yo'q qiladi, ammo bu hali ham odamlar yashash muhitini nima uchun yo'q qilishini aniqlamaydi. Odamlarning yashash muhitini buzishiga olib keladigan kuchlar deyiladi haydovchilar yashash muhitini yo'q qilish. Demografik, iqtisodiy, ijtimoiy -siyosiy, ilmiy -texnikaviy va madaniy omillar yashash muhitining yo'q qilinishiga hissa qo'shadi. [27]

Demografik omillarga ma'lum bir hududda (shahar va qishloq), ekotizim turi va mamlakatda odamlarning fazoviy taqsimoti va qashshoqlik, yosh, oilani rejalashtirish, jinsi va ta'lim holatining umumiy ta'sirini o'z ichiga oladi. muayyan hududlardagi odamlar. [27] Butun dunyo boʻylab inson populyatsiyasining eksponensial oʻsishining aksariyati biologik xilma-xillikning issiq nuqtalarida yoki yaqinida sodir boʻlmoqda. [18] Bu nima uchun 114 mamlakatda odamlar sonining zichligi yo'qolib ketish xavfi ostida turgan turlar sonining 87,9 foizini tashkil etishi tushuntirilishi mumkin, bu esa odamlarning biologik xilma -xillikni kamaytirishda eng katta rol o'ynashi haqida shubhasiz dalillar keltiradi. [33] Odamlar sonining ko'payishi va odamlarning bunday turlarga boy mintaqalarga ko'chishi tabiatni muhofaza qilish ishlarini nafaqat favqulodda, balki mahalliy inson manfaatlari bilan ziddiyatga olib keladi. [18] Bunday hududlarda mahalliy aholi zichligining yuqori bo'lishi, mahalliy aholining kambag'allik darajasi bilan bevosita bog'liq, ularning aksariyati ma'lumot va oilani rejalashtirishga ega emas. [29]

Geist va Lambin (2002) tadqiqotiga ko'ra, asosiy harakatlantiruvchi kuchlar quyidagilardan iborat bo'lgan (152 holatda omil muhim rol o'ynagan foizda): iqtisodiy omillar (81%), institutsional yoki siyosiy omillar (78%) ), texnologik omillar (70%), madaniy yoki ijtimoiy-siyosiy omillar (66%) va demografik omillar (61%). Asosiy iqtisodiy omillarga milliy va xalqaro talablar, sanoatning sanoat o'sishi (38%), er, ishchi kuchi, yoqilg'i va yog'och uchun ichki xarajatlar (32%) va tijoratlashtirish va yog'och bozorlarining o'sishi (68%) kiradi. mahsulot narxi, asosan, ekinlar uchun (25%). Institutsional va siyosat omillari o'rmonlarni kesish bo'yicha rasmiy siyosatni (40%), kolonizatsiya va infratuzilmani yaxshilashni (34%), erga asoslangan faoliyat uchun subsidiyalarni (26%) mulk huquqi va yerga egalik qilish xavfsizligini (44%) o'z ichiga oladi. %) va korruptsiya, qonunbuzarlik yoki noto'g'ri boshqaruv kabi siyosatdagi muvaffaqiyatsizliklar (42%). Asosiy texnologik omil yog'och sanoatida texnologiyaning yomon qo'llanilishi (45%) edi, bu esa isrofgarchilikka olib keladi. Madaniy va ijtimoiy -siyosiy omillarning keng toifasiga jamoatchilikning munosabati va qadriyatlari (63%), individual/uy xo'jaliklarining xulq -atvori (53%), jamoatchilikning o'rmon muhitiga befarqligi (43%), asosiy qadriyatlarning etishmasligi (36%) va shaxslarning befarqligi kiradi. (32%). Demografik omillar kolonizatsiya qilingan ko'chmanchilarning aholi kam yashaydigan o'rmon maydonlariga ko'chishi (38%) va aholi zichligi o'sishi-bu omillarning birinchi omili-25%.

Bu jarayonni kuchaytirishi mumkin bo'lgan o'rmonlarni kesishning yaqin va asosiy sabablari o'rtasida teskari aloqa va o'zaro ta'sirlar mavjud. Yo'l qurilishi eng katta teskari aloqa ta'siriga ega, chunki u yog'och punktlari va oziq -ovqat bozorlarining o'sishiga olib keladigan yangi aholi punktlari va ko'p sonli aholi punktlari bilan o'zaro aloqada bo'ladi. [29] Bu bozorlarning o'sishi, o'z navbatida, qishloq xo'jaligi va yog'och kesish sanoatining tijoratlashtirishini yaxshilaydi. Ushbu tarmoqlar tijoratlashganida, ular an'anaviy dehqonchilik va daraxt kesish usullaridan ko'ra yashash muhitiga ko'pincha yomon ta'sir ko'rsatadigan kattaroq yoki zamonaviyroq texnikadan foydalanish orqali samaraliroq bo'lishi kerak. Qanday bo'lmasin, tijorat bozorlari uchun ko'proq er tezroq tozalanadi. Bu umumiy teskari aloqa misoli, yaqin va asosiy sabablarning bir -biri bilan qanchalik chambarchas bog'liqligini ko'rsatadi. [ iqtibos kerak ]

Yashash joyini yo'q qilish mintaqaning toshqin va qurg'oqchilik, hosilning etishmasligi, kasallikning tarqalishi va suvning ifloslanishi kabi tabiiy ofatlarga nisbatan zaifligini sezilarli darajada oshirishi mumkin. [27] [ sahifa kerak ] Boshqa tomondan, yaxshi boshqaruv amaliyotiga ega sog'lom ekotizim bu hodisalarning sodir bo'lish ehtimolini kamaytirishi yoki hech bo'lmaganda salbiy ta'sirlarni yumshatishi mumkin. [35] Chivinlar kabi zararkunandalar yashaydigan botqoqlarni yo'q qilish bezgak kabi kasalliklarning oldini olishga yordam berdi. [36]

Qishloq xo'jaligi erlari atrofdagi landshaftning vayron bo'lishidan aziyat chekishi mumkin. So'nggi 50 yil ichida qishloq xo'jaligi erlari atrofidagi yashash joylarining vayron bo'lishi butun dunyo bo'ylab qishloq xo'jaligi erlarining taxminan 40% eroziya, sho'rlanish, siqilish, ozuqa moddalarining kamayishi, ifloslanish va urbanizatsiya natijasida yomonlashdi. [27] Odamlar, shuningdek, yashash joylari vayron bo'lganda, tabiiy yashash muhitidan to'g'ridan -to'g'ri foydalanishni yo'qotadilar. Qushlarni kuzatish, ov va baliq ovlash kabi ko'ngilochar maqsadlarda foydalanish va odatda ekoturizm kabi estetik maqsadlarda foydalanish [ miqdoriy aniqlash ] deyarli buzilmagan yashash muhitiga tayanadi. Ko'p odamlar tabiiy dunyoning murakkabligini qadrlashadi va butun dunyo bo'ylab tabiiy yashash joylari va hayvonlar yoki o'simliklar turlarining yo'qolishidan bezovtalanadilar. [37]

Ehtimol, yashash muhitini yo'q qilishning odamlarga eng chuqur ta'siri bu ko'plab qimmatli ekotizim xizmatlarini yo'qotishdir. Habitatning yo'q qilinishi azot, fosfor, oltingugurt va uglerod davrlarini o'zgartirdi, bu kislotali yomg'ir, suv o'tlari gullab -yashnashi va daryolar va okeanlarda baliqlarning o'lishi tezligini va og'irligini oshirdi va global iqlim o'zgarishiga katta hissa qo'shdi. [27] [ tekshirish uchun kotirovka kerak ] Ekotizim xizmatlaridan biri, uning ahamiyati tobora yaxshiroq tushunila boshlagan. Mahalliy miqyosda daraxtlar mintaqaviy miqyosda shamol va soyani ta'minlaydi, o'simliklarning transpiratsiyasi yomg'ir suvini qayta ishlaydi va global miqyosda doimiy yillik yog'ingarchilikni saqlaydi, butun dunyodagi o'simliklar (ayniqsa, tropik tropik o'rmonlardagi daraxtlar) atmosferada issiqxona gazlarining to'planishiga qarshi turadi. fotosintez orqali karbonat angidridni sekvestrlash orqali. [19] Yashash muhitini yoʻq qilish natijasida kamaygan yoki umuman yoʻqolgan boshqa ekotizim xizmatlariga suv havzasini boshqarish, azot fiksatsiyasi, kislorod ishlab chiqarish, changlatish (qarang changlatuvchilarning kamayishi), [38] chiqindilarni tozalash (yaʼni, zaharli moddalarni parchalash va immobilizatsiya qilish) kiradi. ifloslantiruvchi moddalar) va kanalizatsiya yoki qishloq xo'jaligi oqimining ozuqa moddalarini qayta ishlash. [19]

Faqatgina tropik tropik o'rmonlardan daraxtlarning yo'qolishi Yerning kislorod ishlab chiqarish va karbonat angidridni ishlatish qobiliyatining sezilarli darajada pasayishini anglatadi. Bu xizmatlar yanada muhim ahamiyat kasb etmoqda, chunki karbonat angidrid miqdorining oshishi global iqlim o'zgarishining asosiy omillaridan biridir. [35] Biologik xilma -xillikning yo'qolishi odamlarga bevosita ta'sir qilmasligi mumkin, lekin ko'p turlarning yo'qolishining bilvosita oqibatlari, umuman ekotizimlarning xilma -xilligi juda katta. Biologik xilma -xillik yo'qolganda, atrof -muhit ekotizimda qimmatli va noyob rollarni bajaradigan ko'plab turlarni yo'qotadi. Atrof-muhit va uning barcha aholisi ekstremal ekologik sharoitlardan tiklanish uchun biologik xilma-xillikka tayanadi. Juda ko'p biologik xilma -xillik yo'qolganda, zilzila, suv toshqini yoki vulqon otilishi kabi halokatli hodisa ekotizimning qulashiga olib kelishi mumkin va odamlar bundan aziyat chekishi aniq. [ iqtibos kerak ] Biologik xilma-xillikning yo'qolishi, shuningdek, odamlar biologik nazorat agenti bo'lib xizmat qilishi mumkin bo'lgan hayvonlarni va yuqori mahsuldor ekin navlarini, mavjud yoki kelajakdagi kasalliklarni (masalan, saraton kabi) davolash uchun farmatsevtika preparatlarini va yangi chidamli ekinlarni ta'minlay oladigan o'simliklarni yo'qotishini anglatadi. -pestitsidlarga chidamli hasharotlar yoki zamburug'lar, viruslar va bakteriyalarning virulent shtammlariga sezgir bo'lgan qishloq xo'jaligi turlari uchun navlar. [19]

Yashash joylarining yo'q qilinishining salbiy oqibatlari odatda shahar aholisiga qaraganda to'g'ridan -to'g'ri qishloq aholisiga ta'sir qiladi. [27] Butun dunyoda kambag'al odamlar tabiiy yashash joylari vayron bo'lganidan ko'proq aziyat chekishadi, chunki tabiiy muhit kamroq bo'lsa, tabiiy resurslar kamroq bo'ladi. Aholi jon boshigaAmmo, boy odamlar va mamlakatlar o'zlariga qaraganda ko'proq pul olishlari uchun ko'proq pul to'lashlari mumkin Aholi jon boshiga tabiiy resurslarning ulushi.

Yashash muhitini yo'q qilishning salbiy oqibatlarini ko'rishning yana bir usuli - ma'lum bir yashash joyini yo'q qilishning imkoniyat xarajatlarini ko'rib chiqish. Boshqacha qilib aytganda, ma'lum bir yashash joyini olib tashlash bilan odamlar nimani yo'qotadi? Mamlakat o'rmonli yerlarni qator ekinlar dehqonchiligiga aylantirish orqali oziq-ovqat ta'minotini oshirishi mumkin, ammo tabiiy resurslar yoki toza suv, yog'och, ekoturizm yoki suv toshqini va qurg'oqchilik kabi xizmatlarni etkazib bera olsa, bir xil erning qiymati ancha katta bo'lishi mumkin. boshqaruv. [27] [ tekshirish uchun kotirovka kerak ]

Dunyo aholisining tez o'sishi dunyoning oziq -ovqatga bo'lgan ehtiyojini sezilarli darajada oshirmoqda. Oddiy mantiq shuni ko'rsatadiki, ko'proq odamlar ko'proq oziq-ovqat talab qiladi. Darhaqiqat, dunyo aholisining soni keskin oshgani sayin, kelgusi 30 yil ichida qishloq xo'jaligi mahsulotlari kamida 50%ga oshishi kerak bo'ladi. [39] Ilgari, doimiy ravishda yangi erlar va tuproqlarga ko'chib o'tish, oziq -ovqat mahsulotlariga bo'lgan talabni qondirish uchun oziq -ovqat ishlab chiqarishni ko'paytirdi. Bu oson tuzatish endi mavjud bo'lmaydi, chunki qishloq xo'jaligiga yaroqli bo'lgan erlarning 98% dan ko'prog'i allaqachon ishlatilgan yoki ta'mirdan chiqqan. [40]

Yaqinlashib kelayotgan global oziq -ovqat inqirozi yashash muhitini yo'q qilishning asosiy manbai bo'ladi. Commercial farmers are going to become desperate to produce more food from the same amount of land, so they will use more fertilizers and show less concern for the environment to meet the market demand. Others will seek out new land or will convert other land-uses to agriculture. Agricultural intensification will become widespread at the cost of the environment and its inhabitants. Species will be pushed out of their habitat either directly by habitat destruction or indirectly by fragmentation, degradation, or pollution. Any efforts to protect the world's remaining natural habitat and biodiversity will compete directly with humans’ growing demand for natural resources, especially new agricultural lands. [39]

Tropical deforestation: In most cases of tropical deforestation, three to four underlying causes are driving two to three proximate causes. [29] This means that a universal policy for controlling tropical deforestation would not be able to address the unique combination of proximate and underlying causes of deforestation in each country. [29] Before any local, national, or international deforestation policies are written and enforced, governmental leaders must acquire a detailed understanding of the complex combination of proximate causes and underlying driving forces of deforestation in a given area or country. [29] This concept, along with many other results of tropical deforestation from the Geist and Lambin study, can easily be applied to habitat destruction in general.

Shoreline erosion: Coastal erosion is a natural process as storms, waves, tides and other water level changes occur. Shoreline stabilization can be done by barriers between land and water such as seawalls and bulkheads. Living shorelines are gaining attention as new stabilization method. These can reduce damage and erosion while simultaneously providing ecosystem services such as food production, nutrient and sediment removal, and water quality improvement to society [41]

To prevent an area from losing its specialist species to generalist invasive species depends on the extent of the habitat distraction that has already taken place. In areas where habitat is relatively undisturbed, halting further habitat destruction may be enough. [3] In areas where habitat destruction is more extreme (fragmentation or patch loss), Restoration ecology may be needed. [43]

Education of the general public is possibly the best way to prevent further human habitat destruction. [44] Changing the dull creep of environmental impacts from being viewed as acceptable to being seen a reason for change to more sustainable practices. [44] Education about the necessity of family planning to slow population growth is important as greater population leads to greater human caused habitat destruction. [45]

The preservation and creation of habitat corridors can link isolated populations and increase pollination. [46] Corridors are also known to reduce the negative impacts of habitat destruction. [46]

The biggest potential to solving the issue of habitat destruction comes from solving the political, economical and social problems that go along with it such as, individual and commercial material consumption, [44] sustainable extraction of resources, [47] conservation areas, [44] restoration of degraded land [48] and addressing climate change. [12]

Governmental leaders need to take action by addressing the underlying driving forces, rather than merely regulating the proximate causes. In a broader sense, governmental bodies at a local, national, and international scale need to emphasize:


Ilm

Sadly I can't check right now because I don't wanna deal with the short-answers, but anon is usually right, so. thanks.

NO WAY thanks anonymous no joke this guy is a legend I got 18/18 on my unit test

Anon was wrong for me, I don't know if it's a different test, or they changed the answers, but I only got 11/18, but I'll take it.

Which ones are for connexus?
I already answered, but I need to check them.

Please tell me which ones are correct.

Anon, I hope your right. If you are not, I'm a hacker so I'll find you.

X calm down, your probably a child waiting for your parents to bring you Dino nuggets and choccy milk. Your not a hacker.

BAHAHAHAHAHAHAHAHAHAHAHA @ DINO NUGGETS

DID HE REALLY JUST SAY DINO NUGGETS

THIS MANS JUST SAID "choccy milk" OOOO if X rlly is a hacker imma laugh if u get hacked

Dudes this for connexus here ya go.
1:B
2:B
3:C
4:B
5:B
6:C
7:D
8:D
9:C
10:C
11:A
12:C
13:B
14:B
15:B
16:B
17:D
18:C
now your on your own cya peepls *flys out*

Is Otus from owlboy correct?

@Otus from owlboy is right I got 18/18

idk but imma trust him/her

yeah their answers are right, yay

UMM @X if you're really a hacker you would not be using this site cuz you would be able to hack the lesson! Have you ever wondered how it tells you your score the answer is because the answer is stored in the main scripts for that lesson! Duh

people, can you just put the whole answer instead of just the letter if you really want to help anyone do that bc than they know which answer go to which question bc the test makes change around the questions if you didn't know

The Anonymous from March 13th 2020 is correct got 18/18 from his answers. thanks for the help, because this is my second to last day to finish up my lessons before school ends, so thanks for saving my grades!

19:
All solid waste that is generated at a city level can be dealt with the utilization of concept of three R’s.
First R is the reduction of waste generation All individuals must try to reduce the waste generated at his/her level so that the total quantum of waste get reduced.
Second R stands for Reuse. All individuals must try to use the item again and again if it is in condition of being reused such as plastic containers, bottles etc.
Third R stands for Recycle. All the waste that can be recycled must be recycled so that it can be reused again without producing new items that further adds to the total waste generated.


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Manba ma'lumotlari

Source Data Fig. 1a

Raster files containing (1) agricultural land cover in 2010 at a resolution of 1.5 × 1.5 km, (2) spatial projection of agricultural land cover change from 2010 to 2050, at a resolution of 1.5 × 1.5 km.

Source Data Fig. 1b

Raster file containing spatial projections of agricultural extent in 2050 at a resolution of 1.5 × 1.5 km.

Source Data Fig. 2

Raster file of habitat loss by 2050 for each of amphibians, birds and mammals data file containing estimated area of habitat loss from 2010 to 2050 for each species in each agricultural land-cover scenario.

Source Data Fig. 3a

Data file containing estimated area of habitat loss from 2010 to 2050 for each species in each agricultural land-cover scenario (same data file as for Fig. 2).

Source Data Fig. 3b

Raster file containing global distribution of the species projected to lose >25% of their remaining 2010 habitat by 2050 at a resolution of 1.5 × 1.5 km.

Source Data Fig. 3c

Raster file containing projected change in total habitat, calculated as mean habitat loss across all species in a cell multiplied by the species richness in that cell at a resolution of 1.5 × 1.5 km.

Source Data Fig. 4

Raster files containing projected mean habitat loss from 2010 to 2050 for each agricultural land-cover scenario at a resolution of 1.5 × 1.5 km.


4.2 What are indirect drivers of biodiversity change?

Bu Digest uchun manba hujjat:

  • Global economic activity increased nearly sevenfold between 1950 and 2000 ( S7.SDM ), and in the MA scenarios it is projected to grow a further three- to sixfold by 2050. The many processes of globalization have amplified some driving forces of changes in ecosystem services and attenuated other forces by removing regional barriers, weakening national connections, and increasing the interdependence among people and between nations ( S7.2.2 ).
  • Global population doubled in the past 40 years, reaching 6 billion in 2000 ( S7.2.1 ). It is projected to grow to 8.1–9.6 billion by 2050, depending on the scenario. Urbanization influences consumption, generally increasing the demand for food and energy and thereby increasing pressures on ecosystems globally.
  • Over the past 50 years, there have been significant changes in sociopolitical drivers, including a declining trend in centralized authoritarian governments and a rise in elected democracies, which allows for new forms of management, in particular adaptive management, of environmental resources ( S7.2.3 ).

Conservation Biology - Threats to Biodiversity: Habitat Loss

Habitat loss is one of the biggest threats to biodiversity—it is the number one reason species go extinct. Clearcutting forests to create fields, filling in wetlands to build houses, and creating dams that change river flow are all examples of habitat destruction. Mediterranean ecosystems and temperate forests have already lost 80% of their original cover. The rapidly growing human population is putting more and more pressure on existing habitats.

In most developed countries, original forest cover was lost and converted to farmland long ago. This has ecological consequences and many countries now have national parks and other ways of preserving land for future use. Now, much of the world's biodiversity is found in tropical forests. Unfortunately, tropical forests are being cut down at the rate of 50 football fields a minute. Yoq! Why would we need to make so many football fields?

It used to be (before the 1980s) that quickly growing human populations in tropical countries were the main drivers behind forest loss. Individuals and families would clear plots of land for cattle, houses or small farms. Nowadays, large commercial agriculture is behind most of the forest clearing—crops, trees and livestock for the global market usually replace tropical forests.


Many tropical forests are being rapidly cleared for agriculture. In the left column, the Chaco thorn forest (A) in Argentina and Bolivia is converted to soybean fields (B and C) the giant anteater (D) and maned wolf (E) that live in that forest are threatened by habitat loss. On the right, species-rich forests in Borneo (F) are cleared for oil palm plantations (G and H). Bornean pitcher plants (I) and orangutans (J) are heading toward extinction. Image from here.

Tropical forests are not the only ecosystems undergoing habitat loss. Temperate forests, wetlands and coral reefs (the "rainforests of the sea") are all only a portion of what they used to be. Mountain habitats, grasslands, marine and aquatic habitats are being destroyed for human energy, agriculture and fishing needs.

An issue related to habitat loss is habitat fragmentation, where a habitat that was once continuous is split up into smaller pieces. This has big impacts on animals that can't move between patches of suitable habitat—all of a sudden, their home becomes an island in a sea of roads, construction sites and ranches. Fragmented habitat makes it harder to find food, and harder to find a mate because individuals and populations become isolated from each other. This leads to decreased survival and reproduction of the species in fragmented habitats. Breaking a habitat into fragments also increases the amount of edge in the remaining habitat. Edges are usually less desirable habitat, as they provide less shelter and are more likely to be degraded by the disturbance that fragmented the habitat in the first place.


Fragmented forest in Madagascar, home to many endemic species. Image from here.

There are a few ways of doing conservation in fragmented habitats:

  • Expand the habitat—prevent destruction of the existing habitat, and protect more fragments. The larger, the better since more things can live in bigger fragments. Some animals have "home ranges" that might be bigger than a fragment of habitat.
  • Make the habitat quality better. Managing habitat fragments to limit invasive species, soil erosion and other processes that degrade the habitat is key to maintaining biodiversity.
  • Increase the connectivity between fragments. Allowing organisms to move between habitat fragments can increase survival and genetic diversity of organisms. Creating corridors of suitable habitat between fragments is a way to allow movement.

It can seem unfair for developed nations to blame developing countries for habitat and biodiversity loss when developed countries have already destroyed so much of their own habitats and biodiversity in the process of development. It is true that citizens of developed countries take more than their fair share of resources and it is unsustainable for everyone on the planet to live like someone from a developed country. Biroq, in addition to reducing consumption in developed countries, slowing habitat loss in developing countries is essential for conservation biology. Tropical countries often have higher species richness than temperate countries, and developing countries tend to be in the tropics. There are a lot of international non-profit organizations based in developed countries that are dedicated to helping developing countries grow in sustainable ways without squandering all their resources. Preventing or slowing habitat loss in developing countries is less finger-pointing and more working together for everyone's good.


Edze R. Westra, Andrea J. Dowling, Jenny M. Broniewski, and Stineke van Houte
jild. 47, 2016

Xulosa

CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats)-Cas (CRISPR-associated) systems are prokaryotic adaptive immune systems that provide protection against infection by parasitic mobile genetic elements, such as viruses and plasmids. CRISPR-. Ko'proq o'qish

Figure 1: Mechanism of CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats)-Cas (CRISPR-associated) systems and ecological factors that impact their evolution. During adaptation (upon ph.

Figure 2: Examples of cas operon organization for CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats)-Cas (CRISPR-associated) types belonging to each class. As shown in the color legend.

Figure 3: Scenario for the evolution of CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats)-Cas (CRISPR-associated) systems. Abbreviations: HD, HD family endonuclease HEPN, putative en.