Ma `lumot

Bu xatoning nomi nima?

Bu xatoning nomi nima?


We are searching data for your request:

Forums and discussions:
Manuals and reference books:
Data from registers:
Wait the end of the search in all databases.
Upon completion, a link will appear to access the found materials.

Bir do'stim bu xatoni Germaniyada topdi. U rasmni yubordi va bu qanday xato ekanligini kimdir bilishini so'radi. Hech kim bilmagani va men Google qidiruvi orqali shunga o'xshash narsani topa olmaganim uchun, men buni shu erda so'rashga qaror qildim. U menga faqat tasvirni yuborgani uchun, men o'lcham haqida yaxshi ma'lumot berolmayman. Xo'sh, kim bu qanday xato ekanligini aniqlay oladimi?


Aftidan, bu menga teskari. Katta ehtimol bilan auchenorrhyncha a'zosi, unga sikadalar va barg barglari kiradi. Men buni oyoq tuzilishi, qorin shakli va ko'zlarga qarab aytaman. Qanotlari yo'q ... balki ularni boshqa organizm olib tashlagandir?

Bu Germaniyada uchraydigan "o'tloq qurbaqasi" Philaenus spumariusga o'xshaydi. Yashil quyruq bitiga kelsak, men bunga amin emasman.


Koreydalarning umumiy nomlari mintaqaga qarab farq qiladi. Barg oyoqli hasharotlar ba'zi turlarning oyoqlarida, odatda, orqa oyoqlarda bargga o'xshash kengayishlarni anglatadi. Shimoliy Amerikada kabi turlarning zararkunanda holati Anasa tristis qovoq o'simliklari va boshqa bodringlarda qovoq hasharotlari nomi paydo bo'ldi. [3] [4] Koreydalar Afrika va Avstraliyaning baʼzi qismlarida novdalar yoki uchlari deb ataladi, chunki koʻplab turlar yosh novdalar bilan oziqlanadi, oʻsayotgan uchlari toʻqimalariga fermentlar kiritib, ularning keskin soʻlib ketishiga olib keladi. [5] [6]

Coreidae odatda oval shaklga ega, to'rtta segmentdan iborat antennalari, old qanotlari membranasida ko'plab tomirlar va tashqi ko'rinadigan repugnatorial hidli bezlar. Ularning uzunligi 7 dan 45 mm gacha o'zgarib turadi, bu shuni anglatadiki, bu oilada eng yirik Heteroptera turlari mavjud. Tana shakli juda o'zgaruvchan, ba'zi turlari keng oval, boshqalari parallel tomonlari bilan cho'zilgan, ba'zilari ingichka. "Yaproq oyoqli" tibiali ko'plab turlar juda nozik bo'lib, orqa tibialarning sezilarli kengayishi bilan ajralib turadi, ammo ba'zi mustahkam turlar ham kengayishiga ega. Ba'zi turlari tikanlar va tüberküllerle qoplangan. [7] Bunga misol qilib, 1870 yildagi Phyllomorphini Mulsant & amp Rey qabilasi juda bema'ni, oyoqlari ingichka, tuklari tukli, tasmasi va bezaklari bejirim.

Ko'pgina kuchli turlar kattalashgan, qalinlashgan va egilgan orqa son suyagining ichki chetida tikanlar bilan qurollangan va oyoq suyagining kattalashishi unchalik katta bo'lmagan bo'lsa-da. [1] [3]

Nymfalarda, Coreidae -ning ikkita repugnatorial hidli bezining teshiklari qorinning dorsal yuzasining medial chizig'ida ikkita proektsiya yoki dog'lar ko'rinishida, bittasi qorin tergitining oldingi va orqa chetida ko'rinadi. ichidagi bezlar. Yakuniy ekdiz paytida anatomiya qayta tartibga solinadi va bezlar metatoraksda tugaydi va mezotoraks va metatorakal plevra orasidagi ostiolalar orqali lateral ochiladi. [8]

Coreidae odatda o'simliklar sharbati bilan oziqlanadi. Ma'lumotlarga ko'ra, ba'zi turlar faol yirtqich hisoblanadi, [9], ammo moddiy dalillar yo'q va dalada ba'zilarini Reduviidae ning ba'zi turlari bilan aralashtirib yuborish oson, shuning uchun da'volarning to'g'riligiga shubha tug'ildi. [10]

Ba'zi Coreidae, masalan Phyllomorpha laciniata, tuxumlarini ko'tarib, ota-ona g'amxo'rligini ko'rsatadi. Bu xatti -harakatlar tuxumlarning parazitoidlar hujumidan saqlanish imkoniyatlarini sezilarli darajada yaxshilaydi. [11]

Koreydalar Hemiptera turkumiga joylashtirilgan va Alydidae, Hyocephalidae, Rhopalidae va Stenocephalidae oilalari bilan chambarchas bog'liq. Bu besh oila birgalikda Coreoidea super oilasini tashkil qiladi. Oila katta bo'lib, 270 dan ortiq avlodda 1900 dan ortiq tur mavjud. [7]

Koreydalar bilan shug'ullanadigan ko'pchilik taksonomlar oilani uchta yoki ba'zan to'rtta kichik oilaga bo'lishadi. Koreynaning ko'plab qabilalari, masalan, Agriopocorini, Colpurini, Hydarini, Phyllomorphini va Procamptini kabilar subfamiliya darajasiga ko'tarilish uchun ilgari taklif qilingan, ammo bu o'zgarishlardan bittasi hozirda kamida muhim ozchilik tadqiqotchilar tomonidan qabul qilinadi. Agriopocorinae va so'nggi sharhlar 1867 yilda ma'lum bo'lgan uchta kichik oilani tan olgan holda, ularni yana bir qabila sifatida ko'rib chiqishga moyildirlar. Yana bir qiyinchilik shundaki, bu jins Eubule hali joylashtirilmagan.

Oilaning monofil bo'lmaganligi isbotlangan, chunki Hydarinae va Pseudophloeinae boshqa yadrolarga qaraganda Alydidae bilan yaqinroq bog'liq. [12]

Shunga ko'ra, subfamiliyalar har biri tasviriy avlodlari bilan birga quyidagicha:

  • AkantosefalaLaport, 1833 yil
  • AkantokerusPalisot, 1818 yil
  • AlthosKirkaldi, 1904 yil
  • AmbliyomiyaStol, 1870 yil
  • AmblypeltaStol, 1873 yil
  • AnasaAmyot va Servill, 1843 yil
  • SaralanganlargaBrailovskiy, 2002 yil
  • CatorhinthaStol, 1859 yil
  • ChariesterusLaport, 1833 yil
  • ChelinideaUhler, 1863 yil
  • ChondroceraLaport, 1832 yil
  • CimolusStål, 1862 yil
  • CoreusLich, 1815 yil
  • DaladerAmyot va Servill, 1843 yil
  • DallakorisOsuna, 1981 yil
  • ElasmopodaStål, 1873 yil
  • EvtoxtaMayr, 1865 yil
  • FicanaStål, 1862 yil
  • HelcomeriaStål, 1873 yil
  • XoljeniyaLepeletier va Servil, 1825 yil
  • GipselonotXan, 1833 yil
  • LeptoglossusGerin-Méneville, 1831 yil - ignabargli urug'lik hasharotlari
  • MaduraStol, 1860 yil
  • Ma'muriyStol, 1862 yil
  • MenenotLaport, 1832 yil
  • MozenaAmyot va Servill, 1843 yil
  • NamakAmyot va Servill, 1843 yil
  • NarniyaStål, 1862 yil
  • NisoskolopocerusSartarosh, 1928
  • PefrikAmyot va Servil, 1843 yil
  • FtiyaStol, 1862 yil
  • FillomorfaLaport 1833 yil
  • PlektropodlarBergroth, 1894 yil
  • PiezogasterAmyot va Servil, 1843 yil
  • SagotilMayr, 1865 yil
  • SaviusStol, 1862 yil
  • SkolopocerusUhler, 1875 yil
  • SefinaAmyot va Servil, 1843 yil
  • SetheniraSpinola, 1837 yil
  • SpartokeraLaport, 1833 yil
  • ThasusStol, 1865 yil
  • ZikkaAmyot va Servill, 1843 yil

Agriopokorinalar Miller, 1953 yil (ko'pincha Coreinae tarkibiga kiradi)


Bu xatoning nomi nima? - Biologiya

Papayya pishirig'i, Paracoccus marginatus Uilyams va Granara de Uillink - bu kichik gemipteran bo'lib, u bir qancha turkum o'simliklarga, shu jumladan iqtisodiy jihatdan muhim tropik mevalar va bezaklarga hujum qiladi. Papaya mealybug 1998 yilda Florida shtatining Manate va Palm -Bich okruglarida topilgan va keyinchalik Floridaning boshqa bir qancha tumanlariga tez tarqalgan. Bu Florida shtatidagi ko'plab qishloq xo'jaligi mahsulotlariga, shuningdek, nazorat qilinmasa, boshqa shtatlarga ko'p million dollarlik xavf tug'dirishi mumkin. Biologik nazorat papayya goʻshtini boshqarish strategiyasining asosiy komponenti sifatida belgilandi va klassik biologik nazorat dasturi AQSh Qishloq xoʻjaligi departamenti, Puerto-Riko Qishloq xoʻjaligi departamenti va Dominikan Respublikasi Qishloq xoʻjaligi vazirligi oʻrtasida hamkorlikda boshlangan. 1999 yilda

1-rasm. Papaya mealybug kattalar va tuxum qoplari, Paracoccus marginatus Uilyams va Granara de Villink. Milliy biologik nazorat instituti Deyl Meyerdirk surati.

Tarqatish (yuqoriga)

Papayya mealybugning vatani Meksika va/yoki Markaziy Amerika ekanligiga ishoniladi. U hech qachon u erda jiddiy zararkunanda maqomini olmagan, ehtimol bu tabiiy dushman kompleksining mavjudligi bilan bog'liq. Birinchi namunalar 1955 yilda Meksikada to'plangan. Papaya mealybug 1992 yilda Beliz, Kosta -Rika, Gvatemala va Meksikadagi Neotropik mintaqadan tasvirlangan (Uilyams va Granara de Uillink 1992). Papayya mealybug Karib dengizi hududiga bostirib kirganida, u 1994 yildan buyon zararkunandalarga aylanib, Karib dengizining 14 mamlakatida qayd etilgan: Sent -Martin, Gvadelupa, Sent -Bartelemi, Antigua, Bagama orollari, Britaniya Virjiniya orollari, Kuba, Dominikan Respublikasi, Haiti, Puerto -Riko, Montserrat, Nevis, Sent -Kitts va AQSh Virjiniya orollari. Yaqinda namunalar Tinch okeanining Guam va Palau respublikalarida paydo bo'ldi.

Papayya go'shti 1998 yilda Florida shtatining Bradenton shahrida gibiskusda topilgan. 2002 yil yanvar oyiga kelib, Alachua, Brevard, Broward, Collier, Dade, Hillsborough, Manatee, Martin, Monroe, Palm Beach, Pinellas, Polk, Sarasota va Volusia okruglaridagi 30 ta shaharda 18 xil o'simlik turidan 80 marta to'plangan.

Namunalar Texas va Kaliforniya shtatlarida ham ushlangan va kutilganidek, papayya malybugi butun Floridada va Fors ko'rfazi shtatlari orqali Kaliforniya bo'ylab tezda paydo bo'lishi mumkin. Ba'zi issiqxona ekinlari Delaver, Nyu -Jersi va Merilend kabi shimoldagi hududlarda xavf ostida bo'lishi mumkin. U 2001 yil avgust oyining oxirida, Illinoys shtati, Chikago shahridagi Garfild konservatoriyasida papaya o'simliklarida aniqlangan. Biologik nazorat dasturi 2001 yil dekabr oyida amalga oshirilgan va natijalari juda muvaffaqiyatli bo'lgan.

2 -rasm. Papaya go'shtli go'shtni tarqatish, Paracoccus marginatus Uilyams va Granara de Willink, 2003 yil may holatiga ko'ra. Deyl Meyerdirk tomonidan chizilgan, Milliy biologik nazorat instituti.

Tavsif (yuqoriga)

Papaya mealybug infektsiyalari odatda o'simliklarning er usti qismida paxtaga o'xshash massa to'planishi sifatida kuzatiladi. Voyaga etgan ayol sariq rangga ega va oq mumsimon qoplama bilan qoplangan. Voyaga etgan urg'ochilar uzunligi taxminan 2,2 mm (1/16 dyuym) va kengligi 1,4 mm. Marj atrofida tananing uzunligining 1/4 qismidan kam bo'lgan qisqa mumsimon kaudal filamentlar mavjud.

3-rasm. Papaya bargli infalyatsiyasi papaya mealybug, Paracoccus marginatus Uilyams va Granara de Villink. Milliy biologik nazorat instituti Deyl Meyerdirk surati.

4-rasm. Voyaga etgan urg'ochi papayya go'shti, Paracoccus marginatus Uilyams va Granara de Uillink. USDA, D. Miller va G. Miller tomonidan chizilgan.

Tuxumlar yashil-sariq rangga ega bo'lib, tanasi uzunligidan 3-4 baravar uzun va butunlay oq mum bilan qoplangan tuxum qopiga solinadi. Ovisak katta yoshli urg'ochida qorin bo'shlig'ida rivojlangan.

Voyaga etgan erkaklar pushti rangga bo'yalgan, ayniqsa, pupalgacha va pupal bosqichlarida, lekin birinchi va ikkinchi bosqichda sariq rangda namoyon bo'ladi. Voyaga etgan erkaklarning uzunligi taxminan 1,0 mm, cho'zilgan oval tanasi eng keng ko'krak qafasida (0,3 mm). Voyaga etgan erkaklar o'n segmentli antennalarga, aniq aedeagusga, lateral gözenekli klasterlarga, sklerotlangan ko'krak va boshga, yaxshi rivojlangan qanotlarga ega.

5-rasm. Voyaga etgan erkak papaya go'shtli go'sht, Paracoccus marginatus Uilyams va Granara de Villink. USDA, D. Miller va G. Miller tomonidan chizilgan.

Miller va Miller (2002) papaya mealybugning har ikkala jinsidagi barcha davrlarning to'liq tavsifini, shuningdek, papaya mealybugini boshqa yaqin turlardan ajratish uchun ishlatiladigan belgilarning to'liq tavsifini beradi. Ajratishda muhim bo'lgan ikkita xususiyat P. marginatus boshqa barcha turlardan katta yoshli urg'ochilar Parakok quyidagilardir: dorsal ravishda tananing chekka joylarida cheklangan og'iz-rim quvurli kanallarning mavjudligi va orqa tibialarda teshiklarning yo'qligi. Voyaga yetgan erkaklarni boshqa qarindosh turlardan antennalarda qalin go'shtli to'plamlar va oyoqlarda go'shtli to'plamlar yo'qligi bilan farqlash mumkin.

Papaya mealybugni osongina ajratish mumkin Makonellicoccus marginatus (Yashil), pushti gibiscus mealybug, chunki papaya mealybug urg'ochi sakkizta antennali segmentga ega, oxirgi turda to'qqizdan farqli o'laroq.

6 -rasm. Pushti gibiskusli mealybuglarning hayot aylanish jarayonida har xil. Maconellicoccus hirsutus (yashil). Fotosurat Deyl Meyerdirk, Milliy biologik nazorat instituti.

Papayya mealybug namunalari spirtli ichimliklarga solinganida, bu turning boshqa vakillariga xos bo'lganidek, mavimsi-qora rangga aylanadi.

Biologiya (yuqoriga)

Papaya mealybugining biologiyasi va hayot aylanishi haqida batafsil ma'lumot yo'q. Umuman olganda, mealybuglarning teshuvchi-so'rg'ichli og'izlari bor va ular og'iz bo'shlig'ini o'simlik to'qimalariga kiritish va sharbatini so'rib olish orqali oziqlanadi. Mealybuglar issiq va quruq ob -havoda eng faol. Urgʻochilarning qanotlari yoʻq, ular qisqa masofalarga emaklab yoki havo oqimlarida zarba berish orqali harakatlanadi. Urg'ochilar odatda tuxumdonda 100 dan 600 tagacha tuxum qo'yadilar, garchi go'shtli hasharotlarning ayrim turlari yosh bolalarni tug'sa. Tuxum qo'yish odatda bir haftadan ikki haftagacha sodir bo'ladi. Tuxum chiqishi taxminan 10 kun ichida sodir bo'ladi va nimfalar yoki emaklovchilar oziqlanadigan joylarni faol qidira boshlaydilar. Ayol sudraluvchilar to'rtta yulduzga ega bo'lib, haroratga qarab avlod tugashiga taxminan bir oy kerak bo'ladi. Erkaklar beshta yulduzga ega, ularning to'rtinchisi pillada hosil bo'ladi va pupa deb ataladi. Erkakning beshinchi davri parvozga qodir turning yagona qanotli shaklidir. Voyaga etgan urg'ochilar erkaklarni jinsiy feromonlar bilan o'ziga jalb qiladi. Issiqxona sharoitida ko'payish yil davomida sodir bo'ladi va ayrim turlarda urug'lantirilmasdan sodir bo'lishi mumkin.

Xost o'simliklar (yuqoriga)

Papayya mealybug polifagdir va 25 dan ortiq avloddagi >55 xos o'simliklarda qayd etilgan. Papaya mealybugning iqtisodiy jihatdan muhim mezbon o'simliklariga papayya, gibiskus, avakado, sitrus, paxta, pomidor, baqlajon, qalampir, loviya va no'xat, shirin kartoshka, mango, gilos va anor kiradi.

Zarar (yuqoriga)

Papaya mealybug o'z dastasini barg epidermisiga, shuningdek meva va poyasiga kiritish orqali o'simliklarning sharbati bilan oziqlanadi. Bunda u barglarga zaharli modda kiritadi. Natijada - xloroz, o'simliklarning turg'unligi, barglarning deformatsiyasi, barg va mevalarning erta tushishi, asal shudringining ko'payishi va o'lim. Og'ir zararkunandalar qalin oq shamdan hosil bo'lganligi sababli mevalarni yeyishga qodir. Papaya mealybug faqat mezbon o'simlikning er ustidagi joylarida, ya'ni barglari va mevalarida oziqlanishi qayd etilgan.

7 -rasm. Papayya mevasining zararlanishi va papayya mealybug tomonidan etkazilgan zarar, Paracoccus marginatus Uilyams va Granara de Villink. Milliy biologik nazorat instituti Deyl Meyerdirk surati.

8-rasm. Papaya bargining deformatsiyasi, papaya mealybug, Paracoccus marginatus Uilyams va Granara de Villink. Fotosurat Deyl Meyerdirk, Milliy biologik nazorat instituti.

Boshqaruv (yuqoriga)

Kimyoviy nazorat. Mealybuglarni nazorat qilish uchun bir qator kimyoviy vositalar mavjud, biroq hozircha ularning hech biri papaya mealybugni nazorat qilish uchun maxsus ro'yxatdan o'tkazilmagan. Ro'yxatga olingan pestitsid formulalaridagi faol moddalar asefat, karbaril, xlorpirifos, diazinon, dimetoat, malation va oq mineral moylarni o'z ichiga oladi. Odatda, mealybuglarni davolashda odatdagi dozadan ikki barobar ko'p qo'llaniladi, chunki mealybuglar qalin mumli, paxta sumkachalari bilan himoyalangan va ko'pincha shikastlangan barglar va kurtaklarning ichida yashiringan. Shunday qilib, kimyoviy nazorat faqat qisman samarali va bir nechta ilovalarni talab qiladi. Bundan tashqari, insektitsidlarga qarshilik va tabiiy dushmanlarga nishonga olinmaydigan ta'sirlar bilan bog'liq muammolar kimyoviy nazoratni papayya go'shtli hasharotlarga qarshi kurashning eng maqbul variantiga aylantiradi.

Biologik nazorat. Papayya go'shtining tabiiy dushmanlari orasida savdoda mavjud bo'lgan go'shtli bug'larni yo'q qilish vositasi (Cryptolaemus montrouzieri), qo'ng'iz qo'ng'izlari, dantelli qanotlari va uchib yuruvchi chivinlari, ularning hammasi yirtqich hayvonlar bo'lib, ular mealybug populyatsiyasiga ta'sir qilishi mumkin. Yirtqichlardan tashqari, bir nechta parazitoidlar papayya go'shtiga hujum qilishi mumkin.

1999 yilda USDA hayvonlar va o'simliklarning sog'lig'ini tekshirish xizmati (APHIS) va USDA qishloq xo'jaligini tadqiq qilish xizmati (ARS) papaya mealybug uchun klassik biologik nazorat dasturini boshladi. Mealybugsga xos bo'lgan entsirid endoparazitoid arilarning to'rt avlodini Meksikada USDA va ARS tadqiqotchilari va meksikalik kooperatorlar potentsial biologik nazorat agentlari sifatida to'plashdi: Acerofagus papayyae (Noyes va Shauf), Anagyrus loki (Noyes va Menezes), Anagyrus californicus Komper va Pseudaphycus sp. (USDA 1999, 2000 Meyerdirk va Kauffman 2001). Beshinchi yig'ilgan tur keyinchalik o'stirildi va aniqlandi Pseudleptomastix mexicana (Noyes va Schauff 2003).

To'rt turning hammasi Nyuark, Delaver shtatidagi USDA/ARS karantin muassasalarida tekshirildi va atrof-muhitni baholash yakunlandi (USDA-APHIS 1999, 2000, 2002). Keyin namunalar Puerto-Rikoga jo'natildi va u erda ular Puerto-Riko va Dominikan Respublikasida eksperimental chiqarish uchun o'stirildi va ommaviy o'stirildi. Ushbu to'rtta parazitoidning birinchi chiqarilishi 2000 yil oktyabr oyida Floridada qilingan.

Bugungi kunga kelib, APHIS shuni ko'rsatdiki, parazitoid asalarilarning to'rt avlodining chiqarilishi Dominikan Respublikasidagi tadqiqot joylarida mealybug populyatsiyalari zichligini 99,7% ga va Puerto -Rikodagi tadqiqot joylarida parazitizm bilan 97% ga kamayishiga olib keldi. darajasi 35,5% dan 58,3% gacha (Kauffman va boshqalar. 2001, Meyerdirk va Kauffman 2001). Parazitoidlarning barcha to'rt turi ikkinchi va uchinchi bosqichlarda hujumga uchragan P. marginatus. Biroq, Acerophagus sp. Puerto-Rikoda ham, Dominikan Respublikasida ham dominant parazitoid turlari sifatida paydo bo'lgan (Meyerdirk va Kauffman 2001). Floridadagi to'rtta parazitoidning chiqarilishining natijasi 2003 yil mart oyiga kelib aniqlanmagan.

Tanlangan adabiyotlar (yuqoriga)

  • Becker H. 2000. Uchta import qilingan ari, zararkunandalarga qarshi kurashishi mumkin. Qishloq xo'jaligi tadqiqotlari, 2000 yil may, p. 16-17.
  • Kauffman WC, Meyerdirk DE, Miller D, Schauff M, Ernandes HG, Villanueva Ximenes JA. 2001. Puerto -Riko va Dominikan Respublikasida papaya mealybug biologik nazorati. 2001 yil 11 dekabrda ESA yillik yig'ilishida taqdim etilgan, San-Diego, Kaliforniya.
  • Kauffman WC, Meyerdirk DE, Warkentin R. AQShni himoya qilishda Karib havzasida papaya mealybugning biologik nazorati 2001 yil 2-4 avgustda IOBC yig'ilishida taqdim etilgan, Bozeman, MT.
  • Martinez M, Moraima S, Peres I. 2000. Ikkinchi Mealybug bosqinchisi. CABI - Biokontrol yangiliklari va axborot 21 (2).
  • McKenzie H. 1967. Taksonomiya, biologiya va Shimoliy Amerika turlarini nazorat qilish bilan Kaliforniya mealybugs (Homoptera: Coccoidae: Pseudococcidae). Kaliforniya universiteti matbuoti, Berkli.
  • Meyerdirk DE, Kauffman WC. 2001. uchun biologik nazorat dasturini ishlab chiqish holati Paracoccus marginatus Uilyams, papayya go'shti. Ichki USDA, APHIS, PPQ hisoboti.
  • Miller DR, Miller GL. 2000. bo'yicha taksonomik ma'lumotlar Paracoccus marginatus. Papayya mealybugning biologik nazorati bo'yicha texnik yig'ilish va seminar, Paracoccus marginatus, Karib dengizida. Sent-Kitts, G'arbiy Hindiston, 2000 yil 25-26 iyul.
  • Miller DR, Miller GL. 2002. Qayta tavsiflash Paracoccus marginatus Uilyams va Granara de Willink (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Pseudococcidae), shu jumladan, etuk bo'lmagan bosqichlar va katta yoshli erkakning tavsifi. Vashington Entomologiya Jamiyatining materiallari 104: 1-23.
  • Miller DR, Uilyams DJ, Hamon AB. 1999. Floridada va Karib havzasida yangi mealybug (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Pseudococcidae) zararkunandalari haqida eslatmalar: papaya mealybug, Paracoccus marginatus Uilyams va Granara de Uillink. Insecta Mundi 13: (3-4).
  • Yangi zararkunandalarga qarshi maslahat guruhi. 1998. NPAG hisobot fayli #98 (nashr qilinmagan). AQSh Qishloq xo'jaligi vazirligi, Hayvonlar va o'simliklarning sog'lig'ini tekshirish xizmati, O'simliklarni himoya qilish va karantini, NPAG, Riverdale, MD. 11 b.
  • Noyes JS, Hayat M. 1994. Anagyrini sharq mealybug parazitoidlari (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae). CAB International, Buyuk Britaniya. 554 bet.
  • Noyes JS, Schauff ME. 2003. Yangi Encyrtidae (Hymenoptera) Papaya Mealybugdan (Paracoccus marginatus Uilyams va Granara de Uillink) (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Pseudococcidae). Vashington Entomologik Jamiyatining materiallari 105: 180-185.
  • Schauff ME, Geyts M. 2002. Papaya mealybug parazitoidlari (Paracoccus marginatus). EC Cariforum, Karib dengizi qishloq xo'jaligi va baliqchilik dasturi, & quot; Papaya Mealybugni boshqarish bo'yicha mintaqaviy o'quv seminari & quot; San-Xuan, Puerto-Riko, 2002 yil 23-25 ​​oktyabr.
  • Watson GW, Chandler LR. 1999. Karib dengizi mintaqasida muhim bo'lgan Mealybugsni aniqlash. Hamdo'stlik Ilmiy Kengashi va CAB International, London. 40 pp.
  • Uilyams DJ, Granara de Willink MC. 1992. Markaziy va Janubiy Amerikaning mealybuglari. CAB International, Buyuk Britaniya, 644 pp.
  • AQSh qishloq xo'jaligi vazirligi, hayvonlar va o'simliklarning sog'lig'ini tekshirish xizmati. 1999. Papayya go'shtini nazorat qilish, Paracoccus marginatus (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae). Atrof-muhitni baholash, oktyabr 1999. Riverdale, MD.
  • AQSh qishloq xo'jaligi vazirligi, hayvonlar va o'simliklarning sog'lig'ini tekshirish xizmati. 2000. Papayya mealybugni nazorat qilish, Paracoccus marginatus (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae). Atrof-muhitni baholash (qo'shimcha), iyun 2000. Riverdale, MD.
  • AQSh qishloq xo'jaligi vazirligi, hayvonlar va o'simliklarning sog'lig'ini tekshirish xizmati. 2002. Papayya go'shtini nazorat qilish, Paracoccus marginatus (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae). Atrof-muhitni baholash, iyun 2002. Riverdale, MD.

Veb-dizayn: Don Vasik, Jeyn Medli
Nashr raqami: EENY-302
Nashr qilingan sana: 2003 yil avgust. So'nggi tahrir: 2006 yil sentyabr. Ko'rib chiqilgan: 2018 yil aprel.


Bu xatoning nomi nima? - Biologiya

Ba'zan qizil paltolar, chinchoqlar yoki maunli kvartiralar (USDA 1976), to'shak hasharotlari, Cimex ma'ruzalari Linneylar-odamlar, tovuqlar, ko'rshapalaklar va vaqti-vaqti bilan uy hayvonlarining qon bilan oziqlanadigan parazitlari (Usinger 1966). Choyshablar moxov, sharq yarasi, Q-isitmasi va brutsellyoz bilan kasallanganlikda gumon qilinmoqda (Krueger 2000), lekin kasallikning odamlarga tarqalishiga hech qachon aloqasi bo'lmagan (Dolling 1991). DDT kabi zamonaviy insektitsidlarni ishlab chiqish va qo'llashdan so'ng, yotoq hasharotlari deyarli yo'qoldi. Biroq, 1995 yildan beri zararkunandalarga qarshi kurash bo'yicha mutaxassislar ko'rpa-to'shak bilan bog'liq shikoyatlar ko'payganini payqashdi (Krueger 2000).

1-rasm. Kattalar uchun yotoq hasharoti, Cimex ma'ruzalari Linney, ovqatlanmoqda. Jozef Smit fotosurati, Florida universiteti.

Tarqatish (yuqoriga)

Odam turar joylari, qushlar uyalari va yarasalar g'orlari to'shakda hasharotlar uchun eng mos yashash joylari hisoblanadi, chunki ular issiqlik, yashirish joylari va oziqlanish uchun uy egalarini taklif qiladi (Dolling 1991). Choyshablar atrof -muhit bo'ylab bir tekis taqsimlanmagan, lekin ular garajlarda to'plangan (Usinger 1966). Odamlar yashaydigan uylar ichida devorlar va mebelda, devor qog'ozi va yog'ochdan yasalgan taxtaning orqasida yoki gilam ostidagi yoriqlar va yoriqlar kiradi (Krueger 2000). Choyshablar odatda faqat tunda faol bo'ladi, lekin kunduzi och qolganda oziqlanadi (Usinger 1966). Choyshablarni kiyimda, bagajda, ko'rpa -to'shakda va mebelda tashish mumkin (USDA 1976). To'shak hasharotlarida sochlarga, mo'yna yoki patlarga yopishib oladigan qo'shimchalar yo'q, shuning uchun ular kamdan -kam hollarda uy egalarida topiladi (Dolling 1991).

Tavsif (yuqoriga)

Voyaga yetgan to'shakda qanotlari juda qisqargan, keng tekislangan, tuxumsimon hasharotlar (Schuh va Slater 1995). Teri, kichraytirilgan oldingi qanotlari (hemelytra) uzundan ko'ra kengroq, biroz to'rtburchak ko'rinishga ega. Pronotumning yon tomonlari qisqa, qattiq tuklar bilan qoplangan (Furman va Catts 1970). Oziqlantirishdan oldin, to'shak qurtlari odatda jigarrang rangga ega va uzunligi 6 dan 9,5 mm gacha. Oziqlantirishdan keyin tana shishib, qizil rangga ega (USDA 1976).

2 -rasm. Katta yoshdagi to'shakning dorsal ko'rinishi, Cimex ma'ruzalari Linney. Foto: Devid Almquist, Florida universiteti.

3-rasm. Katta yoshdagi to'shakning yon tomondan ko'rinishi, Cimex ma'ruzalari Linney. Jozef Smit fotosurati, Florida universiteti.

4-rasm. To'shak nimfasi, Cimex ma'ruzalari Linney. Fotosurat Jozef Smit, Florida universiteti.

Odam uchun eng muhim bo'lgan ikkita to'shak hasharotlari umumiy to'shak hasharotidir, Cimex ma'ruzalariva tropik to'shakdagi hasharotlar, Cimex hemipterus. Ko'krak qafasining birinchi segmenti bo'lgan protoraksga qarab, bu ikki turdagi to'shakni osongina ajratish mumkin. Oddiy to'shakda hasharotning protoraksi tropik to'shakka qaraganda ko'proq lateral kengaygan va ekstremal chetlari ko'proq tekislangan (Ghauri 1973).

Hayot aylanishi (yuqoriga)

Ularning yashash joylari cheklanganligi sababli, erkak va urg'ochi to'shakda hasharotlar o'rtasida juftlashish qiyin. Ayolning qorin bo'shlig'ining to'rtinchi sternumida ikkilamchi kopulyatsiya teshigi, Ribaga organi yoki paragenital sinus mavjud bo'lib, u erda erkakdan spermatozoidlar yuboriladi. Keyin spermatozoidlar gemokoel yoki tana bo'shlig'idan o'tib tuxumdonlarga ko'chib o'tadilar (Dolling 1991). Urg'ochi urg'ochi hayoti davomida kuniga bir tadan 12 tagacha tuxum qo'yadi (Krueger 2000). Tuxumlar qo'pol yuzalarga yotqiziladi va shaffof tsement bilan qoplangan bo'lib, ularni substratga yopishadi (Usinger 1966). Olti dan 17 kungacha tuxumdan deyarli rangi yo'q nimfalar paydo bo'ladi. Taxminan o'n hafta davom etadigan beshta moltadan so'ng, nimfalar etuklikka etadi (USDA 1976).

So'rov va boshqaruv (yuqoriga)

To'shak hasharotlari tunda eng faol bo'ladi, shuning uchun ularning zararlanishi oson topilmaydi (Snetsinger 1997). Biroq, to'shakdagi hasharotlar ko'p bo'lsa, yog'li sekretsiyalardan yoqimsiz hidni osongina aniqlash mumkin (USDA 1976). Choyshabni yuqtirishning boshqa aniqlanadigan belgilariga yashiringan joylari atrofida qolgan najas (Dolling 1991) va matras va mebellardagi qizil -jigarrang dog'lar kiradi (Frishman 2000). Yaxshi sanitariya - bu to'shakda hasharotlar tarqalishini nazorat qilishning birinchi qadamidir. Biroq, yuqori darajadagi mehmonxonalar va xususiy uylar yaqinda infestatsiyalarni qayd etdi, bu esa to'shakda hasharotlarni to'xtatish uchun yaxshi sanitariya sharoitlari etarli emasligini ko'rsatadi (Krueger 2000).

Agar to'shak to'shaklari to'shakda yoki to'shakda bo'lsa, pestitsidlardan foydalanishni minimallashtirish uchun mexanik usullarni, masalan, changyutgichni tozalash, bo'sh devor qog'ozini olib tashlash yoki yopishtirishga e'tibor qaratish lozim (Frishman 2000). To'shaklarni tozalash uchun bug 'tozalagichlari yoki issiq suvdan foydalanish samaradorligi shubhali. Issiqlik to'shakka osongina so'riladi va to'shakka zarar etkazmaydi. Ammo og'ir infektsiyalar uchun pestitsidlardan foydalanish mumkin. To'shak va pol qoplamalarini pestitsidlar bilan namlamaslikka ehtiyot bo'lish kerak. Ishlatishdan oldin choyshablar va mebellarni yaxshilab quriting. Bir tadqiqot shuni ko'rsatadiki, retseptsiz tumanlar to'shakdagi hasharotlarni nazorat qilishda samarali emas (Jons va Bryant 2012).

Tanlangan adabiyotlar (yuqoriga)

  • Dolling WR. 1991. Hemiptera. Oksford universiteti matbuoti, Nyu-York, Nyu-York.
  • EPA. 2018. To'shakdagi hasharotlar: ularni chiqarib tashlang va saqlang. https://www.epa.gov/bedbugs. (2021 yil 12 mart)
  • Frishman A. 2000. Bed Bug asoslari va nazorat choralari. Zararkunandalarga qarshi kurash 68: 24.
  • Furman DP, Catts E. 1970. Tibbiy entomologiya bo'yicha qo'llanma, 3 -nashr. Milliy matbuot kitoblari, Palo Alto, Kaliforniya.
  • Ghauri MSK. 1973. Hemiptera (xatolar), 373-393-betlar. In K.G.V. Smit [tahrir], hasharotlar va tibbiy ahamiyatga ega bo'lgan boshqa artropodlar. Britaniya muzeyi, London, Angliya.
  • Jons Sk, Bryant JL. 2012. Choyshabga qarshi retseptsiz sotiladigan to'liq chiqariladigan sisleyicilarning samarasizligi (Heteroptera: Cimicidae). Iqtisodiy entomologiya jurnali 105: 936-942.
  • Koehler PG, Pereira RM, Pfiester M, Hertz J. (2011 yil iyul). To'shak hasharotlari va qon so'ruvchi konenoz. EDIS. (2017 yil 26 -aprel)
  • Krueger L. 2000. To'shakdagi hasharotlar qayta tiklanishidan tishlamang. Zararkunandalarga qarshi kurash 68: 58-64.
  • Potter MF. (2010 yil yanvar). Kanalar. Kentukki universiteti entomologiya faktlar varaqlari. (2017 yil 26 aprel)
  • Snetsinger R. 1997. To'shak va boshqa xatolar, 393-425-betlar. In Mallis A, Hedges SA [tahrirlar], Zararkunandalarga qarshi kurash bo'yicha qo'llanma, 8-nashr. Franzak & Foster Co., Klivlend, Ogayo shtati.
  • Schuh R, Slater JA. 1995. Dunyoning haqiqiy xatolari (Hemiptera: Heteroptera) tasnifi va tabiiy tarix. Kornel universiteti matbuoti, Itaka, Nyu-York.
  • [USDA] AQSH Qishloq xoʻjaligi departamenti. 1976. To'shakdagi hasharotlarni qanday nazorat qilish kerak. USDA. Vashington D.C.
  • Usinger RL. 1966. Cimicidae monografiyasi (Hemiptera - Heteroptera). Amerika Entomologik Jamiyati, Kollej Park, Merilend.

Teng imkoniyatlar instituti
Taniqli mavjudotlar muharriri va koordinatori: Doktor Elena Rhodes, Florida universiteti


Bu xatoning nomi nima? - Biologiya

Katta ko'zli hasharotlar, Geokoris spp. - dunyoning ko'p joylarida uchraydigan mayda hasharotlar (uzunligi taxminan 1/6 dyuym). Ular odatda foydali deb hisoblanadilar, chunki ular chim, manzarali va qishloq xo'jaligi ekinlarining ko'plab hasharotlar va kana zararkunandalarini ovlaydi. Katta ko'zli hasharotlar Floridada (va boshqa joylarda) yirtqich sifatidagi qiymati uchun tadqiqotga e'tibor qaratilayotgan hasharotlar qatoriga kiradi. Floridadagi katta xatolarni aniqlashga yordam berish uchun ushbu nashrda kattalar va kech nimfalarning kaliti keltirilgan.

1-rasm. Katta yoshli katta xato Geokoris sp., oq pashsha nimfa bilan oziqlanadi. Surat Jek Dykinga, USDA.

Tarqatish (yuqoriga)

Uliginosus geocoris (Aytaylik) AQShning ko'p qismi va Kanadaning janubida joylashgan. Floridada, Uliginosus geocoris hech bo'lmaganda janubgacha Ft nomi bilan mashhur. Myers.

2 -rasm. Kattalar Geocoris uliginosus (Ayting), katta ko'zli xato. Fotosurat Lyle J. Buss, Florida universiteti.

Geokoris punktlari (Aytish) birinchi navbatda Florida bo'ylab keng tarqalgan va Nyu-Jersi g'arbidan janubiy Indiana va Kolorado janubi va janubi-g'arbiy qismida Texas, Arizona, Kaliforniya va Meksikagacha bo'lgan avstriyalik tur. Boshqa joylarga Gvatemala, Panama va Gavayi kiradi.

3-rasm. Kattalar Geokoris punktlari (Ayting), katta xato. Fotosurat Lyle J. Buss, Florida universiteti.

Geocoris bullatus (Ayting -chi), katta katta ko'zli xato AQSh va Kanadada qirg'oqdan qirg'oqqa qadar keng tarqalgan. Floridaning shimoliy chegarasidan janubdan Key -Uestgacha bo'lgan ko'plab yozuvlar mavjud.

4-rasm. Kattalar Geocoris bullatus (Ayting), katta ko'zli xato. Julieta Brambila surati, USDA.

Tavsif (yuqoriga)

Katta ko'zli hasharotlar - kichik, cho'zinchoq oval lygaeidlar bo'lib, boshi uzunroqdan kengroq va ko'zga ko'ringan ko'zlari orqaga egilib, pronotumning old tomonini yopishadi. Qalamning uzunlamasına yivi bor. Bu xususiyatlarni nimfalarda ham, kattalarda ham ko'rish mumkin va katta ko'zli hasharotlarni o'xshash hasharotlardan ajratish uchun xizmat qiladi. Katta ko'zli hasharotlarning o'ziga xos xususiyati juda qisqa yoki yo'q klaval komissuradir. Lygaeidlar, masalan, chinchoqlar, Baxt spp. soxta chinnigullar, Nysius spp. va pamera xatolari, Neopamera spp. ba'zan katta ko'zli hasharotlar bilan adashtiriladi, ammo bu avlodlar klaval komissuraga ega (5-rasm.) skutellumning taxminan yarmiga teng. Bundan tashqari, bu lygaeidlarda bosh ko'proq uchburchak shaklga ega. Kaplan (1968) maysazor mutaxassislari katta va hasharotli hasharotlarni ajratib olish zarurligini ta'kidlagan. Noto'g'ri identifikatsiya geokorinlarga qarshi yo'naltirilgan chinch bug'ining spreyiga olib kelishi mumkin, natijada pul va foydali hasharotlar keraksiz yo'qoladi.

Shakl. 5. Katta ko'zli hasharotda klaval komissurani taqqoslash, Geokoris sp. (chapda) va apamera xatosi, Neopamera sp. (o'ngda).

6 -rasm. Voyaga etgan (chapda) va nimfada (o'ngda) chinchoqlar, Blissus sp. Fotosurat Lyle J. Buss, Florida universiteti.

7 -rasm. Voyaga etgan (chapda) va nimfada (o'ngda) soxta chinchoqlar, Nysius raphanus Xovard. Fotosurat Lyle J. Buss, Florida universiteti.

8-rasm. Kattalar pamera xatosi, Neopamera sp. Fotosurat Lyle J. Buss, Florida universiteti.

Floridadagi kattalar geokorina turlarining kaliti (yuqoriga)

Floridadagi geokorinlarning quyidagi kaliti ikkita turni o'z ichiga olmaydi GipogeokorisFloridada qayd etilgan, lekin ular kamdan -kam uchraydi. Ba'zi kichik farqlar Geocoris bullatus (Ayting) va Uliginosus geocoris (Aytaylik) kichik tur sifatida rasmiylashtirilgan, lekin bu erda ko'rib chiqilmaydi.

1. I (bazal) segmentining II boshidan uzunroq tumshug'i (bundan mustasno Geokoris punktlari) punktulatsiya (kichik chuqurchalar bilan) yoki ruguloza (mayda ajinlar bilan). . . . . Geokoris 2
1 '. I segmentli tumshug'i II boshga teng yoki undan qisqa, silliq, aniq va porloq. . . . . Gipogeokoris

2. Yuqoridagi deyarli hamma qora, skutellumning yon tomonidagi och chegaradan tashqari, butunlay qora (2-rasm, yuqorida). . . . . Uliginosus geocoris (ayting) 1832 yil
2 '. Ko'pincha skutellum ustidagi rangpar, bir juft rangpar joylar yoki dog'lar (3-rasm, 4 yuqorida). . . . . 3

3. Scutellum bir juft ko'zga ko'ringan, silliq (impunktat), kalozli bazolateral, rangpar dog'lar bilan, dog'lar ba'zan orqaga cho'zilgan (cho'zilgan punktulat) pronotum bilan bir juft lunate impunctate kallositlari bilan, odatda porloq qora, lekin ba'zida turli miqdorda sariq rangga ega. bosh silliq, jilolangan, koriumning orqa orqa chekkasi granulozali emas, balki fuskus bilan belgilanmagan yoki eng zaif darajada, tylus yivi tepaga cho'zilib, o'rtasiga yaqin yoyli, ko'ndalang sulkus bilan kesilgan (Shakl.9, pastda), uzunligi 3,5 dan 4,2 mm gacha (3-rasm, yuqorida). . . . . Geokoris punktlari (Ayting) 1832

Shakl. 9. Boshning dorsal tomoni Geokoris punktlari.

3 '. Scutellum juft punktat, noaniq, submedial, och-sariq joylarning shakli va hajmi o'zgaruvchan, lekin odatda cho'zinchoq va qisman burchakli pronotum bilan bir juft yumaloq, och sariq bosh granulozali ichki orqa chetida. Corium ikkita chigal "dog'lar" bilan belgilangan, tilusning orqadagi bitta kattaroq truba cho'qqisiga cho'zilmaydigan, ko'ndalang bo'yni uzunligi 3,0 dan 3,5 mm gacha (4 -rasm, yuqorida). . . . . Geocoris bullatus (Ayting) 1832 yil, katta ko'zli xato

Floridaning kech turdagi nimfalari kaliti Geokoris (Yuqoriga qaytish)

Nimfa lygaeid ekanligiga ishonch hosil qilish uchun Herring va Ashlock (1971) va/yoki DeCoursey (1971) tomonidan yaratilgan kalitlarga murojaat qiling. Ligaeid nimfasini jinsga kiritish uchun Sweet and Slater (1961) ga murojaat qiling.

1. Bosh va ko'krakning dorsal zamin rangi to'q jigarrang (10-rasm, pastda). . . . . Uliginosus geocoris (Demoq)
1'. Bosh va ko'krak qafasining dorsal zamin rangi oqarib ketgan (ko'pincha tartibsiz qora dog'lar paydo bo'ladi). . . . . 2018-05-01 xoxlasa buladi 121 2

10 -rasm. ning nimfasi Uliginosus geocoris (Ayting), katta xato. Fotosurat Lyle J. Buss, Florida universiteti.

2. Mezotorasik qanot yostiqchalari (old qanotlari rivojlanayotgan) yoki belgilanmagan yoki faqat ikkita juft chiziqli jigarrang izlari bo'lgan, faqat bitta apikal jigarrang dog'li skutellum bilan, ba'zida bitta katta juftga birlashtirilgan, bu belgilar bazolateral pronotum odatda uch juft jigarrang dog'li, shakli o'zgaruvchan va degree of pigmentation, often inconspicuous antennal segments I through III each with prominent dorsoapical pale spot (Fig. 11, below) . . . . . Geocoris bullatus (Say), the large bigeyed bug

11-rasm. Nymph of the large bigeyed bug, Geocoris bullatus (Say). Photograph by Ronald Smith, Auburn University bugwood.org.

2'. Mesothoracic wing pads each with four or five brown marks (usually three basal streaks, one middle dot, and one prominent apical spot) scutellum with three to five pairs of dark brown marks (usually four pairs), the most prominent pair near middle pronotum with five to six pairs of conspicuous dark brown irregular spots antennal segments I to III each without dorsoapical pale spot (Fig. 12, below) . . . . . Geocoris punctipes (Say)

12-rasm. Nymph of Geocoris punctipes (Say), a bigeyed bug. Fotosurat Lyle J. Buss, Florida universiteti.

Life Cycle and Biology (Back to Top)

The literature on the food habits and life histories of Geocoris spp. is too extensive for more than a token review here. The most abundant bigeyed bug in Florida and the southeastern United States is Geocoris punctipes (Say). McGregor and McDonough (1917) reported the life history of Geocoris punctipes at Batesburg, South Carolina, finding the average development time from egg to adult was 30 days. York (1944) reported that adult Geocoris required either free moisture or plant moisture as well as insect prey. Sweet (1960) found that Geocoris adults can survive on sunflower seeds and water, without insect food. Dumas et al. (1962) found more Geocoris punctipes in the morning than at midday or evening, either by sweep net sampling or complete plant examination in Arkansas soybean fields. Stoner (1970) found that Geocoris punctipes apparently needed prey for proper development and fecundity.

13 -rasm. Eggs of Geocoris bullatus (Say), the large bigeyed bug. Photograph by Ronald Smith, Auburn University www.insectimages.org.

Xostlar (yuqoriga)

Bell and Whitcomb (1964) reported that, in Arkansas, Geocoris punctipes va Geocoris uliginosus were among the most abundant and important predators of bollworm eggs, Helicoverpa (=Heliothis) zea (Boddie) on cotton from mid-June until September. Whitcomb and Bell (1964) reported that bigeyed bugs preyed upon aphids, plant bugs, eggs, and young larvae of the bollworm and cotton leafworm in Arkansas cotton fields. On the negative side, however, the prey occasionally were beneficial species (Orius spp.). Champlain and Sholdt (1967) reported on the life history of Geocoris punctipes laboratoriyada. Lingren et al. (1968) reported Geocoris punctipes was a more effective predator than Geocoris uliginosus qarshi Helicoverpa (=Heliothis) spp. Nymphs consumed an average of 47 mites, and adults an average of 83 red spider mites on cotton per day. Orhanides et al. (1971) reported that Geocoris punctipes was an effective predator of the pink bollworm, Pectinophora gossypiella (Saunders), in southern California cotton fields. Tamaki and Weeks (1972) listed 46 references, itemized from the literature the prey list of Geocoris spp., and presented extensive research results from a five year project on Geocoris in the Yakima Valley of Washington, including data on Geocoris bullatus.

Tanlangan adabiyotlar (yuqoriga)

  • Anonymous. (May 2000). Color photographs of adult Geocoris bullatus (Say) and Geocoris uliginosus (Say). Cedar Creek Natural History Area. (11 December 2014).
  • Bell KO, Whitcomb WH. 1964. Field studies on egg predators of the bollworm, Heliothis zea (Boddie). Florida Entomologist 47: 171-180.
  • Blatchli VS. 1926. Heteroptera or true bugs of Eastern North America, with especial reference to the faunas of Indiana and Florida. Nature Publishing Co., Indianapolis. 1116 pp.
  • Caplan I. 1968. Some chinch bugs aren't. Weeds Trees and Turf 7: 31-32.
  • Champlain RA, Sholdt LL. 1967. Life history of Geocoris punctipes (Hemiptera: Lygaeidae) in the laboratory. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 60: 883-885.
  • DeCoursey RM. 1971. Keys to the families and subfamilies of the nymphs of North American Hemiptera-Heteroptera. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 73: 413-428.
  • Dumas BA, Boyer WP, Whitcomb WH. 1962. Effect of time of day on surveys of predaceous insects in field crops. Florida Entomologist 45: 121-128.
  • Herring JL, Ashlock PD. 1971. A key to the nymphs of the families of Hemiptera (Heteroptera) of America north of Mexico. Florida Entomologist 54: 207-212.
  • Lingren PD, Ridgay RL, Jones SL. 1968. Consumption by several common arthropod predators of eggs and larvae of two Heliothis species that attack cotton. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 61: 613-618.
  • McGregor EA, McDonough FL. 1917. The red spider on cotton. USDA Bulletin 416: 41-43.
  • Orhanides GM, Gonzalez D, Bartlett BR. 1971. Identification and evaluation of pink bollworm predators in southern California. Journal of Economic Entomology 64: 421-424.
  • Stoner A. 1970. Plant feeding by a predaceous insect, Geocoris punctipes. Journal of Economic Entomology 63: 1911-1915.
  • Sweet MH. 1960. The seed bugs: A contribution to the feeding habits of the Lygaeidae (Hemiptera: Heteroptera). Annals of the Entomological Society of America 53: 317-321.
  • Sweet MH, Slater JA. 1961. A generic key to the nymphs of North American Lygaeidae (Hemiptera: Heteroptera). Annals of the Entomological Society of America 54: 333-340.
  • Tamaki G, Weeks RE. 1972. Biology and ecology of two predators, Geocoris pallens Stäl and G. bullatus (Say). U.S. Department of Agriculture Technical Bulletin 1446. 46 pp.
  • Whitcomb WH, Bell K. 1964. Predaceous insects, spiders, and mites of Arkansas cotton fields. Arkansas Agricultural Experiment Station Bulletin 690. 84 pp.
  • York GT. 1944. Food studies of Geocoris spp., predators of the beet leafhopper. Journal of Economic Entomology 37: 25-29.

Author: F. W. Mead (retired), Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, Division of Plant Industry.
Originally published as DPI Entomology Circular 121. Updated for this publication.
Photographs: Lyle J. Buss, University of Florida Julieta Brambila and Jack Dykinga, USDA Ronald Smith, Auburn University
Drawings: Division of Plant Industry
Veb-dizayn: Don Vasik, Jeyn Medli
Publication Number: EENY-252
Publication Date: November 2001. Latest revision: December 2014. Reviewed: December 2017.


Structure of Cicada (With Diagram) | Zoologiya

In this article we will discuss about the structure of Cicada with the help of a diagram.

Fig. 248 CICADA

1. It is commonly known as “cicada or seventeen year locust” and is a terrestrial insect which damages fruit trees.

2. The body is differentiated into head, thorax, and abdomen.

3. Head bears a pair of large compound eyes a pair of small antennae with bristles at the tip and piercing & sucking mouth parts.

4. Thorax bears three pairs of jointed legs and two pairs of wings which are membranous, cross veined and of smooth and uniform texture throughout.

5. Of the wings, the fore wings are large and hind wings small. They are folded over abdomen at rest.

6. Abdomen bears 8-9 segments, of which he last segment is smallest and narrow and the first segment bears two sets of vibrating plates.

7. They are noisy insects which produce loud sounds by rubbing their wings against vibrating plates and with each other.

8. Life cycle takes from 13 to 17 years in metamorphosis from nymph to adult and thus it is called seventeen year locust.

9. Adults feed on fruits and nymphs feed or plant sap from roots of the fruit trees.


Spittlebug


Surat muallifi:
Dwight Kuhn/Bruce Coleman Inc.

Adult spittlebugs are inconspicuous, dull-colored, and about 6 mm (0.25 in) long. They readily jump or fly when disturbed. Females lay small eggs in rows, usually in hidden parts of the plant, such as the sheath between leaves and stems. Immature spittlebugs are readily recognized by the frothy white mass that surrounds them. The spittle is a mixture of watery waste air, which is blown through abdominal openings to make bubbles and a glandular secretion. The bugs secrete the frothy spittle to protect themselves from parasitic and predaceous insects. More than one nymph may be found in a single spittle mass. Spittlebugs have incomplete metamorphosis. Nymphs undergo about five molts and may be orange, yellow, or green. Most species have only one generation per year.

One common species, the meadow spittlebug, is found throughout the United States. It feeds primarily on herbaceous plants, but also occurs on conifers and young woody deciduous plants. Adults are robust and tan, black, or mottled brownish. Nymphs are yellow to green beneath their foaming mass of spittle. The western pine spittlebug is one of several species that are common on conifers and the plants that typically grow under them in the Western United States. Nymphs are dark greenish, brown, or black, sometimes with lighter spots or a pink abdomen. Adults are brownish orange to dark brown and may have an indistinct diagonal white line across the back.

Scientific classification: Spittlebugs are in the insect family Aphrophoridae, order Homoptera. The meadow spittlebug is classified as Philaenus spumarius the western pine spittlebug is classified as Aphrophora permutata.


Qotil xato

Voyaga etgan qotil xatosi nisbatan katta, uzunligi odatda 11 dan 37 mm gacha (0,5 dan 1,5 dyuymgacha). Haqiqiy xatolarda bo'lgani kabi, u o'ljani qayta ishlash uchun membranali uchlari bilan old qanotlarini qalinlashtirgan. Tinch holatda cho'zilgan, bo'laklarga bo'lingan tumshug'i tanasining tagida orqaga buklanishi mumkin. Uning katlangan qanotlari bir -birining ustiga chiqib, orqa tomonga o'ziga xos shakl beradi. Kattalar odatda qora, qizg'ish yoki jigarrang, uzun, ingichka oyoqli, boshi tor va yumaloq, boncukli ko'zlari bor. Ba'zi turlari o'ljaning qochib ketishiga yo'l qo'ymaslik uchun oldingi oyoqlarida o'tkir tikanlar mavjud.

Qotil hasharotlarining barcha turlari yirtqich, asosan tırtıllar va boshqa hasharotlar bilan oziqlanadi. Qotil bug 'o'ljani mixlash uchun ignasimon tumshug'idan foydalanadi. Keyin o'ljani falaj qiladigan va qisman hazm qiladigan zaharni yuboradi. Jabrlanuvchining tanasi suyultiriladi va qotilning somonga o'xshash og'iz qismlari bilan so'riladi. G'arbiy qon so'ruvchi konenoza kabi bir nechta turlar odatda odamlarni va boshqa sutemizuvchilarni tishlaydi. Bu qon to'kish turlarini ba'zida o'pish hasharotlari deb atashadi, chunki ular uxlab yotgan odamlarning yuzi va lablari kabi yalang'och go'shtni o'ziga jalb qiladi. Hatto hasharotlar bilan ovlanadigan turlar ham odamlarga bir necha kun davom etadigan yallig'lanishi bilan og'riqli chaqishi mumkin.

Tuxum ochiq shaklda o'simliklarga joylashtiriladi. Ba'zi turlarning tuxumlari umurtqa pog'onasi yoki nozik haykalli yuzalarga ega. Ular qisman rivojlangan lichinka shakliga kirib, nimfa deb ataladi. Nimfalar shakli jihatidan bir xil turdagi kattalarga o'xshaydi, faqat ular qanotsiz, kichikroq va ko'pincha rangi har xil.

Eng keng tarqalgan turlardan biri bu bargli qotil bugidir. Kattalar uzunligi 1,5 sm (0,6 dyuym) va jigarrang va qizil rangga ega. Qotil hasharotlarning o'ziga xos kichik guruhi - cho'zilgan ko'krak qafasi (o'rta segment) va ingichka tanasi va oyoqlariga ega bo'lgan ipli hasharotlar. Ular ko'pincha jigarrang va tayoqchali hasharotlarga o'xshaydi.

Ilmiy tasnif: Qotil hasharotlari - haqiqiy gemiptera xatolar tartibida Reduviidae oilasining a'zolari. Tarmoqli xatolar Emesinae subfamily oilasining a'zolaridir. Leafhopper qotil xatosi Zelus renardii, g'arbiy qon so'ruvchi konenoz esa Triatoma protracta deb tasniflanadi.


Scientific name for mosquito

Each mosquito species has a Latin scientific name, such as Anopheles quadrimaculatus. Anopheles is the "generic" name of a group of closely related mosquitoes and quadrimaculatus is the "species" name that characterizes a group of individuals that are similar in structure and physiology and capable of interbreeding.

These names are used in a descriptive manner so that the name tells something about each particular mosquito, for example, Anopheles - Greek meaning hurtful or prejudicial and quadrimaculatus - Latin meaning four spots (4 dark spots on the wings). Some species have what are called "common names" as well as scientific names, such as Ochlerotatus taeniorhynchus, the "black salt marsh mosquito."

The Name "Mosquito" scientific?

The Spanish called the mosquitoes, "musketas," and the native Hispanic Americans called them "zancudos." "Mosquito" is a Spanish or Portuguese word meaning "little fly" while "zancudos," a Spanish word, means "long-legged." The use of the word "mosquito" is apparently of North American origin and dates back to about 1583. In Europe, mosquitoes were called "gnats" by the English, "Les moucherons" or "Les cousins" by French writers, and the


The Biology of the Goat

The heads of biting lice are large. They have mouth parts that are adapted to chewing structures that are part of their diet such as hair, feathers, skin debris, scabs, wool wax, and even their own eggs. They do not actually bite but a few species are known to be able to suck tissue fluids from their hosts.

Species of biting lice that live on birds possess colonies of bacteria in the cells of their digestive system which help them digest the keratin of feathers. Biting lice, like the species that occur on goats and sheep are thought to damage hair by eating into the shaft almost like felling a tree.

These lice prefer to live at the base of the tail, between the legs, on the shoulders, head, neck and along the back, but can appear anywhere on the goat in a heavy infestation.

Sucking Lice

When the louse pierces the skin, saliva is injected into the wound which prevents the blood from clotting. The reaction to the saliva causes severe irritation to the goat such as biting, scratching, restlessness, loss of sleep and interruption of feeding. A large infestation can also cause anemia from loss of blood.

These lice feed almost constantly resulting in oozing blood which clots on the surface of the skin. This can cause a secondary bacterial skin infection as well as attract flies. These lice are usually found on the legs.

Hayot sikli

The female louse attaches her eggs (called nits) to the hair shaft with a strong glue-like substance. The first nymph developes inside the egg and looks very much like an adult louse except that it is smaller and is not sexually developed. The first nymph hatches out of the egg in 1 to 2 weeks. A week or so later the first nymph will molt its skin becoming a second nymph which becomes a third nymph which will then metamorphose into the adult stage. The entire cycle from egg to adult is completed in about 4 to 6 weeks depending on the species.

Lice at any stage will die in a short time if they fall off of the host. Eggs cannot hatch at all if they fall off the host. Skin temperature is a critical factor in hatching of eggs. Higher temperatures prevent eggs from developing. This may account for the fact that populations of lice are higher in the winter than in the summer months or why some lice prefer the cooler temperatures of the legs in the summer and the warmer temperature of the host's body in the winter. One species of biting lice that infect horses are parthenogenic -- females can lay fertile eggs without mating.


Water Boatman

Water boatmen have a grayish, elongated, oval body, 3 to 12 mm (0.13 to 0.5 in) long. They have a conical beak and a broad head with large eyes. Adults have short, flattened front legs long, slender middle legs and oarlike hind legs fringed with fine hairs that aid in swimming. Eggs are attached to aquatic vegetation as they are laid. Nymphs develop through five growth stages, or instars, and have incomplete metamorphosis.

Like all aquatic bugs, water boatmen lack gills they breathe air when at the surface of the water. They frequently carry an air bubble on their body surface or under their wings, and draw oxygen from this bubble while they are underwater. Water boatmen can swim rapidly, but they spend long periods clinging to vegetation. Males stridulate, or chirp, to attract mates by rubbing their forelegs against their head.

Water boatmen occur most commonly in ponds and along the edges of lakes, although a few species inhabit the brackish waters of estuaries. Most water boatmen eat algae and minute aquatic organisms. Some are predaceous and feed on mosquito larvae and other small aquatic animals in this way, they help to control aquatic pests. In turn, they are important prey for many larger aquatic animals. Their broad beak or mouth allows them to ingest solid food particles as well as liquids other true bugs are able to ingest only liquids. Unlike many other aquatic bugs, water boatman will not bite people.

Water boatmen are sometimes confused with backswimmers, which are generally larger bugs that swim upside down and deliver a painful bite. Water-boatmen eggs are used as food in Mexico and some other parts of the world. Eggs are collected from aquatic plants, dried, and ground into flour.

Scientific classification: Water boatmen make up the true bug family Corixidae, suborder Heteroptera, order Hemiptera.



Izohlar:

  1. Ker

    the incomparable phrase

  2. Zujin

    Wonderful, this is a funny answer

  3. Protesilaus

    Haqiqiy javob

  4. Chanler

    Menimcha, siz to'g'ri emassiz. Ishonaman. Men buni muhokama qilishni taklif qilaman. Menga kechqurun menga yozamiz, biz gaplashamiz.

  5. Koushik

    Kechirasiz, lekin mening fikrimcha, ular noto'g'ri edi. Men buni isbotlashga qodirman. Menga PM orqali yozing.

  6. Quoc

    yaxshi, qanday ajoyib xabar



Xabar yozing