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Staphylococcus epidermidis va S. ogohlantiruvchi antibiotiklarga chidamliligi

Staphylococcus epidermidis va S. ogohlantiruvchi antibiotiklarga chidamliligi



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Men antibiotiklarga chidamliligi haqida ma'lumot izlayapman S. epidermidis va S. ogohlantiruvchiAyniqsa, penitsillin, ampitsillin va tetratsiklinga qarshi, lekin hech qanday foyda bermadi. Ma'lumotlar bazasi bo'lgan yaxshi veb -saytlar bormi?


Bu erda antibiotiklarga qarshilik ko'rsatishga oid ba'zi tadqiqotlar Staphylococcus epidermidis va Stafilokok ogohlantiruvchisi:

Koagulaza -salbiy stafilokokk shtammlarining antibiotiklarga chidamliligi, Turkiyadagi septikemik bemorlarning qon madaniyatidan ajratilgan - Ko'ksal, Yasar va Samasti [2009]

Yuqoridagi tadqiqot xulosasi quyidagicha:

Ushbu tadqiqotning maqsadi-kasalxonadagi bakteremiyaga olib keladigan koagulaza-manfiy stafilokokklarning (antibiotiklarga chidamliligi) va shilimshiq ishlab chiqarish xususiyatlarini aniqlash. 1999-2006 yillar oralig'ida Istanbul universiteti Cerrahpasha tibbiyot kasalxonasining intensiv terapiya bo'limlarida va boshqa bo'limlarida kasalxonaga yotqizilgan haqiqiy bakteriemiyasi bo'lgan bemorlarning qon namunalaridan jami 200 ga yaqin KNS shtammlari ajratilgan. 200 dan ortiq INS izolatlari orasida Staphylococcus epidermidis eng ko'p tarqalgan tur edi. (87) va undan keyin Staphylococcus gemolitikus (23), Staphylococcus hominis (19), Staphylococcus lugdunensis (18), Staphylococcus capitis (15), Staphylococcus xylosus (10), Stafilokok ogohlantiruvchisi (8), Staphylococcus saprophyticus (5), Staphylococcus lentus (5), Staphylococcus simulans (4), Staphylococcus chromogenes (3), Staphylococcus cohnii (1), Staphylococcus schleiferi (1) va Staphylococcus lleus). CoNS izolyatsiyasining 67,5 foizida metitsillinga qarshilik aniqlangan. Metitsillinga chidamli KNS shtammlari metitsillinga sezgir bo'lgan KNS shtammlariga qaraganda antibiotiklarga nisbatan chidamliroq ekanligi aniqlandi. Metitsillinga chidamli va metitsillinga sezgir CoNS shtammlarining antibakterial vositalarga qarshilik darajasi quyidagicha edi: gentamisin 90% va 17%, eritromitsin 80% va 37%, klindamitsin 72% va 18%, trimetoprim-sulfametoksazol 68% va 38%, siprofloksatsin 67% va 23%, tetratsiklin 60% va 45%, xloramfenikol 56% va 13% va fuzid kislotasi 25% va 15%. Shtammlarning hech biri vankomitsin va teikoplaninga chidamli emas edi. Shilliq ishlab chiqarish 200 ta CoNS shtammining 86 tasida aniqlangan. Metitsillinga qarshilik shilimshiq-pozitivlarning 81 foizida va shilimshiq-shtammlarning 57 foizida aniqlangan. Bizning natijalarimiz metitsillinga chidamli CoNS shtammlarida keng qo'llaniladigan agentlarga qarshilik yuqori ekanligini ko'rsatdi. Ammo fusidik kislota eng kichik qarshilik koeffitsientiga ega, glikopeptidlar bundan mustasno. Bundan tashqari, ko'pchilik S. epidermidis shtammlar shilimshiq-musbat bo'lib, metitsillin qarshiligi va shilimshiq ishlab chiqarish o'rtasida statistik jihatdan ahamiyatli (p<0,001) bog'liqlik mavjud.

Boshqa ikkita tadqiqot penitsillinga sezuvchanlik bilan bog'liq yuqorida aytib o'tilgan shtammlar haqida ma'lumotni o'z ichiga oladi.

Antibiotiklarga chidamli Staphylococcus epidermidis yurak jarrohligidan o'tgan bemorlarda - Archer & Tenenbaum [1980]

Stafilokok ogohlantiruvchi bakteremiyaning klinik ahamiyati - Kamat, Singer va Isenberg [1992]

Bundan tashqari, men ushbu turdagi savollar uchun Google Scholar bilan tanishishingizni tavsiya qilaman. Bu odatda yaxshi boshlanish nuqtasi bo'ladi.


Staphylococcus Epidermidis: biofilmlar va antibiotiklarga qarshilik

Staphylococcus epidermidis Bizning terimiz va shilliq qavat floramizning normal komponentidir va ko'pincha hech qanday muammo tug'dirmaydi. Bu hatto bizga yordam berishi mumkin. Ammo ma'lum sharoitlarda u zararli va ba'zida o'lik infektsiyalarni keltirib chiqaradi. Tadqiqotchilar shuni aniqladilarki, turlarning ayrim shtammlari ko'p antibiotiklarga, shu jumladan metitsillinga chidamli va davolash qiyin. Metitsillin juda foydali antibiotik bo'lgan, ammo u endi bakteriyalarning ayrim turlarini yoki shtammlarini o'ldirmaydi. S. epidermidis uzoq vaqtdan beri kasalxonalar va tibbiy muassasalarda bezovta qiluvchi hisoblanadi, chunki u bemor namunalarini ifloslantiradi, ammo u o'z mavjudligining yangi va xavfli bosqichiga kirgan bo'lishi mumkin.

S. epidermidis - bu bizning hayotimizga ta'sir ko'rsatadigan g'alati bakteriya. Kuchlanish va vaziyatga qarab, bakteriya foydali bo'lishi mumkin, aftidan neytral, engil zararli yoki o'lik bo'lishi mumkin.


Kirish

Staphylococcus aureus O'zi ishlab chiqilgan deyarli barcha antibiotiklarga tabiiy ravishda sezgir. Qarshilik ko'pincha tashqi manbalardan genlarga gorizontal o'tish orqali olinadi, ammo xromosoma mutatsiyalari va antibiotiklarni tanlash ham muhimdir. Bu ajoyib sezuvchanlik S. aureus Aleksandr Fleming penitsillin kashfiyotiga olib keldi, bu esa "kantibiotiklar davri" ning boshlanishiga olib keldi. Penitsillin chindan ham mo''jizaviy dori edi: bir xilda o'lik infektsiyalarni davolash mumkin edi. Shunga qaramay, 1940-yillarning o'rtalariga kelib, klinik amaliyotga joriy qilinganidan atigi bir necha yil o'tgach, shifoxonalarda penitsillin qarshiligi paydo bo'ldi va o'n yil ichida bu jamiyatda muhim muammoga aylandi. S. aureus har qanday antibiotikga qarshilik ko'rsatish qobiliyati bilan ajralib turadi.

Asosiy biologik xususiyat S. aureus oddiy odamlarni asemptomatik tarzda mustamlaka qilish qobiliyatidir. Taxminan 30% odamlar asemptomatik burun tashuvchisi hisoblanadi S. aureus 1 , 2 ya'ni S. aureus normal flora hisoblanadi. S. aureus tashuvchilar infektsiya xavfi yuqori va ular tarqalishining muhim manbai hisoblanadi S. aureus shaxslar orasidagi ziddiyatlar. ni uzatishning asosiy usuli S. aureus to'g'ridan-to'g'ri aloqa orqali, odatda kolonizatsiyalangan yoki yuqtirgan odam bilan teri bilan aloqa qiladi, garchi kontaminatsiyalangan narsalar va yuzalar bilan aloqa qilish ham 3 va#x02013 6 rolini o'ynashi mumkin. Turli xil xost omillari, shu jumladan normal teri to'sig'ining yo'qolishi, diabet va orttirilgan immunitet tanqisligi sindromi kabi asosiy kasalliklarning mavjudligi yoki neytrofillar funktsiyasidagi nuqsonlar infektsiyaga moyil bo'ladi.

Antibiotiklarga chidamli shtammlar keltirib chiqaradigan infektsiyalar S. aureus dunyo miqyosida epidemiya darajasiga yetdi 7. Stafilokokklarning umumiy og'irligi, ayniqsa metitsillin tufayli chidamli S. aureus shtammlari (MRSA) ko'plab mamlakatlarda sog'liqni saqlash va hamjamiyat sharoitida ko'payib bormoqda 8 –. Qo'shma Shtatlarda teri va yumshoq to'qimalar infektsiyasining asosiy sababi sifatida jamoaga bog'liq MRSA (CA-MRSA) shtammlarining paydo bo'lishi 14, 15 bu o'sishning ko'p qismini tashkil qiladi. CA-MRSA shtammlarining tarqalish tezligi va darajasi ajoyibdir. Qo'shma Shtatlarga qo'shimcha ravishda, CA-MRSA shtammlari Kanada, Osiyo, Janubiy Amerika, Avstraliya va butun Evropada, shu jumladan Norvegiya, Gollandiya, Daniya va Finlyandiyada, MRSA tarqalishi past bo'lgan mamlakatlarda qayd etilgan. 12, 16 va#x02013 29 Dunyo miqyosida, CA-MRSA shtammlari aniqlangan turli xil klonlar sonining xilma-xilligini ko'rsatdi.

CA-MRSA shtammlari tarqalishi va tarqalishining oshishiga qo'shimcha ravishda, ayniqsa virulent bo'lib ko'rinadi. CA-MRSA shtammlari bilan bog'liq bo'lgan nekrotizan fasiit va fulminant, nekrotizan pnevmoniya 30 – 32 kabi kuchli va to'qimalarni buzuvchi infektsiyalar paydo bo'lishidan oldin kamdan-kam hollarda kuzatilgan. CA-MRSA ning gipervirulent xatti-harakati uchun mas'ul bo'lgan omil yoki omillar ma'lum emas, ammo PVL epidemiologik jihatdan metitsillinga sezgir bo'lgan teri infektsiyalari va pnevmoniya bilan bog'liq. S. aureus (MSSA) 33 shtammlari potentsial etakchi nomzod sifatida taklif qilingan.

Aytish mumkinki, antibiotiklar hech qachon qabul qilinmagan eng ko'p konsentratsiyali selektiv bosimdir S. aureus insoniyat bilan uzoq evolyutsiya tarixida. Ushbu selektiv bosimning gorizontal va vertikal genlarni uzatish bilan bog'liq oqibatlari ushbu ko'rib chiqish mavzusidir. Ularning terapevtik vositalar sifatidagi muhim ahamiyatini inobatga olgan holda, hikoya penitsillinlarga va tarkibiy jihatdan bog'liq bo'lgan beta-laktam antibiotiklariga qarshilikka qaratiladi.


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Natijalar

Qirq ikkita S epidermidis, to'rtS ogohlantirish, uch S kapit, ikkita S hominis, har biri bittadanS ksilos, S simulyatorlari, S ekvorum, vaS lugdunensis aniqlandi (1 -jadval). Antibiotiklarga sezuvchanlik testining natijalari 2 va 3 -jadvallarda keltirilgan. Umuman olganda, 37 (67%) izolat penitsillinga, 12 (22%) gentamisinga, 18 (33%) eritromitsinga, to'rt (7%) siprofloksatsinga, bitta (2%) teikoplaninga chidamli edi. Tetratsiklinga sezuvchanlik 49 ta izolatda sinovdan o'tkazildi 28 (57%) tetratsiklinga chidamli. Umuman olganda, sakkiz (15%) shtamm barcha antibiotiklarga sezgir bo'lgan, 16 (29%) uch yoki undan ortiq antibiotiklarga chidamli. Bir tur S epidermidis barcha antibiotiklarga chidamliligi aniqlandi. Agar disk diffuziyasi bilan aniqlangan teikoplanin qarshiligi agar suyultirish usuli bilan tasdiqlangan (MIC 32 mkg / ml).

Surunkali blefarit, yiringli kon'yunktivit va yiringli keratitli bemorlardan ajratilgan koagulaz -manfiy stafilokokklarning turlarini aniqlash.

Koagulaza salbiy stafilokokklarning antibiotiklarga sezuvchanligini tekshirish

Koagulaz -manfiy stafilokokklarning ko'p antibiotiklarga chidamliligi


Antibiotiklarga qarshilik inqirozi: Probiyotiklar va metitsillinga chidamli o'rtasidagi antagonistik o'zaro ta'sirlar haqida yangilanish. Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)

Antimikrobiyal qarshilik (AMR) halokati global ko'p qirrali inqiroz bo'lib, halokatli patogenlarni muvaffaqiyatli yo'q qilish uchun jiddiy muammo tug'diradi. Metitsillinga chidamli Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) halokatli infektsiyalarni keltirib chiqaradigan barqaror superbugdir. MRSA inson terisi, yarasi va old burun burunlarining tez-tez kolonizatori bo'lsa-da, MRSA ning ichak kolonizatsiyasi MRSA bilan bog'liq kolitni qo'zg'atish xavfini sezilarli darajada oshirdi, bundan tashqari, chidamli genlarni kommensal mikroblarga gorizontal ravishda o'tkazish uchun qulay muhit yaratdi. Boshqa tomondan, antibiotiklarga stafilokokk qarshilik MRSAni samarali dekolonizatsiya qilish uchun yangi mikroblarga qarshi vositalarni ishlab chiqishga undadi. Bunga javoban probiyotiklar va ularning metabolitlari (postbiotiklar) qo'shimcha terapevtik yo'llar sifatida taklif qilingan. Probiyotiklar organik kislotalar, vodorod kabi ko'plab antagonistik birikmalarni ishlab chiqarish orqali MRSA ga qarshi ko'plab ta'sir ko'rsatadi (bakterial, biofilmga qarshi, virulentlikka qarshi, giyohvandlikka qarshi chidamlilik, ko-agregatsiya va anti-kvorumni aniqlash) peroksid, past molekulyar og'irlikdagi birikmalar, biosurfaktantlar, bakteriotsinlar va inhibitsion moddalar kabi bakteriosinlar. Bundan tashqari, probiyotiklar epiteliya to'siqni funktsiyasini barqarorlashtiradi va turli xil signal uzatish mexanizmlarini tartibga solish orqali xost immun tizimini ijobiy modulyatsiya qiladi. Klinikadan oldingi va inson aralashuvi tadqiqotlari shuni ko'rsatdiki, probiotiklar himoya, raqobat va joy almashish rejimida kolonizatsiyaga qarshi mexanizmlarni namoyish etish orqali MRSA bilan raqobatlashadi. Ushbu sharhda biz MRSA bilan bog'liq virulentlik va dori-darmonlarga chidamlilik xususiyatlarining dinamikasini va probiyotiklarning turli xil ta'sir mexanizmlari orqali MRSA ni qanday antagonize qilishini ta'kidlashni maqsad qilganmiz.

Bu obuna tarkibini oldindan ko'rish, sizning muassasangiz orqali kirish.


Antibiotiklarga qarshilik va biofilmni hosil qilish qobiliyati Stafilokok spp. Sirtlar va tibbiyototexnik materiallardan ajratilgan shtammlar

1 Mikrobiologiya, Biokimiya va Biologiya hujayralari, Fanlar va texnika fakultetlari, Abomey-Kalavi universiteti, Cotonou 05 BP 1604, Benin.

2 Institut Régional de Santé Publique de Ouidah, Université d'Abomey-Calavi, Ouidah BP 384, Benin

3 Microbiologie va des Technologies Alimentaires, Biologiya Végétale, Fanlar va texnika fakultetlari, Abomey-Kalavi universiteti, Cotonou 01 BP 526, Benin laboratoriyalari.

Xulosa

Stafilokok spp. ko'pincha kasalxona infektsiyalari bilan bog'liq. Ushbu tadqiqotning maqsadi-Benin shahridagi Abomey-Calavi/Sô-Ava universiteti kasalxonasi markazida antibiotiklarga sezuvchanlik va stafilokokklar turlarining biofilm hosil qilish imkoniyatlarini sirt va tibbiyot materiallaridan ajratish. Namunalar ISO/DIS14698-1 standartiga muvofiq quruq tampon usuli bilan yuzalar va tibbiy materiallardan olingan. Ning izolyatsiyasi Stafilokok shtammlari Chapman agarda o'tkazildi va ularni aniqlash mikroskopik va biokimyoviy usullar yordamida amalga oshirildi. Ning sezuvchanligi Stafilokok antibiotiklarga ajratilgan izolatlar EUCAST va CLSI tavsiyalariga muvofiq disk diffuziya usuli bilan baholandi. Mikroplastinkalar yordamida biofilm shakllanishi sifat jihatidan baholandi. Tahlil qilingan 128 ta sirt va tibbiy material namunalarining 77% i bilan ifloslangan. Stafilokok spp. O'n uch turdagi Stafilokok har xil nisbatda ajratilgan, lekin bolalar bo'limi eng ko'p ifloslangan (33%) S. aureus. Antibiotiklarga qarshilik turlariga qarab sezilarli darajada farq qiladi Stafilokok. Ammo antibiotiklar, masalan, levomitsetin va vankomitsin eng samarali hisoblanadi S. aureus, koagulaza-manfiy stafilokokklar esa gentamitsin va siprofloksatsinga nisbatan kamroq qarshilik ko'rsatdi. Biofilm testi shuni ko'rsatadiki, bizning izolyatsiya qilingan shtammlarimizning 37 foizi biofilm hosil qiluvchilar edi. Kasalxona gigienasini muntazam ravishda kuzatib borish juda muhim bo'lsa-da, antibiotiklardan optimal foydalanish mikroblarga qarshi qarshilikni kamaytirishning asosidir.

1.Kirish

Kasalxona infektsiya xavfi juda yuqori bo'lgan joy. Kasalxonadan olingan (shifoxona ichidagi) infektsiyalar, ularning chastotasi, ijtimoiy-iqtisodiy qiymati va zo'ravonligi tufayli sog'liqni saqlashning haqiqiy muammosi sifatida tan olingan. Bu infektsiyalar bemorlarga, ularning oilalariga va barcha tibbiyot xodimlariga ta'sir qiladi. Kasalxona infektsiyalarining sabablari ko'p, ular parvarish qilish tartiblari va xatti -harakatlar bilan bog'liq. Bir nechta tadqiqotlar shuni ko'rsatadi Escherichia coli va Staphylococcus aureus Ular asosan barcha kasalxona infektsiyalaridan ajratilgan [1]. Ahoyo va boshqalar o'tkazgan tadqiqotda. [2] Zou va Kollinz departamentli kasalxonasi (Benin) pediatriya bo'limida nozokomial infektsiyaning 32% ni tashkil qiladi. S. aureus parvarish qilish muhitida xabar berilgan.

Darhaqiqat, stafilokokklar Paster davrining boshida aniqlangan va hech qachon tadqiqotni to'xtatmagan, chunki ularning patologiyada ahamiyati juda katta. Ular jiddiy infektsiyalar uchun mas'ul bo'lgan bakteriyalar orasida katta qismini egallaydi. Bundan tashqari, ular ko'plab klinik holatlarda, ham jamoaviy, ham kasalxonaviy patologiyalarda kuzatiladi [3]. Bundan tashqari, stafilokokklar operatsiyadan keyingi infektsiyalarning asosiy patogenlari hisoblanadi. Ular orasida koagulaz-salbiy Stafilokok materiallar ustidagi asosiy agentlardir [4]. Biroz Stafilokok turlar, shuningdek, to'shak, kiyim va eshik tutqichlari kabi jonsiz sirtlarda ham omon qolishi mumkin [5]. Turli sirtlarga yopishib olishning umumiy tendentsiyasi biofilm deb nomlangan polisaxarid matritsasi tomonidan ishlab chiqariladi va bu omil antibiotiklarga va immunitet tizimining hujumlariga sezilarli qarshilik ko'rsatadi [6, 7]. Kasalxonalarda antibiotiklar va antiseptiklar tomonidan qo'llaniladigan tanlov bosimi eng chidamli bakteriyalar paydo bo'lishini kuchaytiradi. Shunday qilib, shifoxona muhiti ko'p dorilarga chidamli bakteriyalar omborlari kabi ko'rinadi. Bu patogen mikroblarning o'zaro o'tishi uchun ko'plab xavf omillari bilan birlashtirilgan va ularning shifoxona infektsiyalarida ishtirokini tushuntirishi mumkin [8]. Bundan tashqari, ko'p dori-darmonlarga chidamli bakteriyalar bilan bog'liq infektsiyalar bilan bog'liq o'lim darajasi butun dunyo bo'ylab juda yuqori bo'lib qolmoqda [9]. Beninda [10] va Sahroi Afrikaning boshqa mamlakatlarida [11] ko'p dorilarga chidamli bakteriyalarning bir nechta holatlari qayd etilgan.

ning ustunligi Stafilokok spp. shifoxonalarda gigiena qoidalariga rioya qilinmasligini ko'rsatadi [12, 13]. Ushbu tadqiqot patogenni yaxshiroq bilish uchun o'tkazildi Stafilokok samarali terapevtik yondashuv va antibiotiklardan yaxshiroq foydalanish uchun shtammlar. Shunday qilib, bizning tadqiqotimiz qarshilik profilini tuzishga qaratilgan Stafilokok Abomey-Calavi/Sô-Ava universiteti kasalxona markazidan ajratilgan va bakterial biofilm hosil qilish qobiliyatini aniqlaydigan turlar.

2. Materiallar va usullar

2.1. Namuna olish

Namunalar 2019 yil yanvaridan iyunigacha Abomey-Calavi/Sô-Ava (Janubiy Benin) universitet markazidagi kasalxonasida ISO/DIS14698-1 bo'yicha 5 bo'limda (neonatologiya, pediatriya, tug'ruqxona, operatsiya xonasi va markaziy sterilizatsiya) yig'ilgan. [14]. Tadqiqot uchun sirt va tibbiyot materiallaridan, masalan, ko'rpa, tuproq, aravachalar, bolalar uchun stollar, chaqaloqlarning vazni, zambillari, shkafi va sezaryen qutilari kabi quruq tampon usuli bilan 128 ta namuna olingan. Namuna olish uchun tamponlarni belgilangan joylardan o'tkazgandan so'ng, ular himoya qutilariga qaytarildi. To'plangan namunalar muzlatgichli muzli quti (8 ° C) yordamida ko'chirildi, so'ngra har bir holatga 5 ml Mueller Xinton bulonidan qo'shildi va keyin 37 ° C da 24 soat inkübe qilindi. Har bir sirt va asbob uchun uchta takrorlash amalga oshirildi.

2.2. Izolyatsiya va izolyatsiya qilingan shtammlarni aniqlash

Ning izolyatsiyasi Stafilokok bakteriyalar Chapman -agarda o'tkazilgan. Qisqacha aytganda, 24 soat inkubatsiyadan so'ng, bakteriyalar o'sishini ko'rsatadigan bulutli ko'rinishga ega bo'lgan holatlar 37 ° C da Chapman agarida 24 soat davomida inkübe qilingan [15]. Identifikatsiya Stafilokok shtammlar mikroskopik va biokimyoviy usullar (Gram stain, DNase testi va katalaza testi) va API® Staph (bioMerieux, Frantsiya) yordamida amalga oshirildi.

2.3. Shtatlarning antibiotiklarga sezuvchanligi

Ning sezuvchanligi Stafilokok 15 ta antibiotikdan ajratilgan shtamm EUCAST [16] va CLSI [17] tavsiyalariga muvofiq Mueller Hinton agar muhitida disk diffuziya usuli bilan tekshirildi. Bakterial suspenziya 0,5 McFarland nazorati yordamida standartlashtirildi. Sinov qilingan o'n beshta antibiotik penitsillin G (P 10 mg), vankomitsin (VA 30 mg), fosfomitsin (FOS 50 mg), tetratsiklin (OT 30 mg), amoksiklav (AC 30 mg), sefoksitin (FOX 30 mg), gentamitsin (G 10 mg), (C 30 mg), sefalotin (KC 30 mg), kanamitsin (K 30 mg), eritromitsin (E 15 mg), siprofloksatsin (CF 5 mg), streptomitsin (S 10 mg), trimetoprim (TMP 5 mg), levomitsetin (C 30) mg) va seftriakson (CI 30 mg).

2.4. Bakterial biofilmni shakllantirish testi

Bakteriyalarning biofilm yaratish qobiliyati ilgari Kristensen va boshqalar tomonidan tasvirlangan usul yordamida aniqlangan. [18]. Shuning uchun biz foydalandik in vitro ko'rinadigan plyonka paydo bo'lganligi sababli, biofilmning shakllanishini sifatli baholash uchun mikroplakalarni o'rganish modellari. Shunday qilib, Brain Heart Infusion (BHI) Broth muhitida 18 soatlik madaniyatdan 48 ta quduqli mikroplaka 10 bilan emlandi. ml bakteriyalar suspenziyasi 150 ga ml BHI qo'shildi. Mikroplastinkalar 24 soat davomida 37 ° C da inkubatsiya qilindi va erkin bakteriyalarni yo'q qilish uchun quduqlar 0,2 ml steril fiziologik suv bilan uch marta yuvildi. Quduqlarning har birida o'tirgan organizmlarning polistirol tayanchiga yopishishi natijasida hosil bo'lgan biofilmlar binafsha kristall (0,1%) bilan 10 daqiqa davomida bo'yalgan. Ortiqcha bo'yoq steril distillangan suv bilan yaxshilab yuvib tashlandi va plitalar quritish uchun xona haroratida qoldirildi [19]. Havoda quritilgandan so'ng, mikroplakaning devorlari bilan qoplangan plyonka paydo bo'lishi devorlarning pastki qismi biofilm ishlab chiqarilishini ko'rsatadi.

2.5. Ma'lumotlarni tahlil qilish

Ma'lumotlar MS Excel 2013 elektron jadvalida qayd etildi va tahlil qilindi. Har bir antibiotik uchun qarshilik foizini chidamli bakteriyalar chastotasini tekshirilgan bakteriyalar soniga bo'lish yo'li bilan hisoblashgan. Grafiklar uchun Graph Pad Prism 7.00 dasturidan foydalanilgan. Statistik ahamiyatga ega bo'lgan chegara belgilandi

3. Natijalar

3.1. Bakteriyalarni aniqlash

Tadqiqotda to'plangan 128 ta namunaning 77% i bilan ifloslangan Stafilokok spp., turli nisbatlarda, 13 turga tarqalgan, xususan: S. aureus, S. kapitit, S. kohnii ssp. kohniy, S. epidermis, S. gemolyticus, S. hominis, S. lentus, S. lugdunensis, S. saprofit, S. shleyferi, S. sciuri, S. ksilos, va S. ogohlantiruvchi. Shunday qilib, namuna yig'ish birligidan mustaqil ravishda, Staphylococcus aureus eng ko'p ustunlik qilgan (43%), undan keyin S. ksiloz (11%). S. saprofit va S. ogohlantiruvchi (1%) eng kam izolyatsiya qilingan (1-rasm).

Asosiy turlarning tarqalishi namuna olish birliklariga qarab juda o'zgaruvchan. It thus appears that the pediatric unit is the most contaminated (33%) by the strains of S. aureus followed by maternity and neonatology (25%), and the central sterilization unit is the least contaminated (7%) (Figure 2).

3.2. Susceptibility to Antibiotics

The isolated strains were split into two categories for the assessment of susceptibility to antibiotics. S. aureus is the coagulase-positive staphylococci (CPS) isolated and the other 12 species (S. capitis, S. cohnii ssp. cohnii, S. epidermis, S. gemolyticus, S. hominis, S. lentus, S. lugdunensis, S. saprophyticus, S. schleiferi, S. sciuri, S. xylosus, va S. warneri) are coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS). Thus, it is observed that all of the S. aureus strains are resistant to cephalothin followed by resistance level to fosfomycin (92.5%) and cefoxitin (87.5%). The lowest resistance of S. aureus was recorded with chloramphenicol (15%) and vancomycin (25%).

Considering the coagulase-negative staphylococci, there was recorded high resistance to fosfomycin (94%) and penicillin (87%). The lowest resistance in CNS was observed with gentamycin (17%) and ciprofloxacin (17%) (Table 1).

3.3. Biofilm Research Test

The biofilm formation test reveals that 37% of our isolates were biofilm formers. When considering species, we observe that 100% of the species of S. lugdunensis va S. warneri isolated were biofilm-forming bacteria followed by S. epidermis (60%). However, no biofilm formation was noticed with species such as S. cohnii ssp. cohnii, S. gemolyticus, va S. saprophyticus (Figure 3) isolated in our study.

4. Munozara

Among the thirteen identified staphylococci species, there was a predominance of Staphylococcus aureus (43%). A high proportion (∼45%) of Staphylococcus aureus from hospital environment samples has been reported in Benin [13] and Morocco [20]. However, in Mali, S. epidermis was reported to be the predominant species in the hospitals [21]. The frequency and the rate of isolated species vary according to their sampling site. Thus, it can be mentioned that species exclusively from human origin (S. capitis, S. hominis, S. lugdunensis, va S. schleiferi), species of both human and animal origin (S. aureus, S. cohnii, S. gemolyticus, S. warneri, va S. xylosus), and species of animal origin (S. hyicus, S. lentus, va S. sciuri) were observed [21]. The presence of those species (animal and/or human) in the hospital environment is evidence of human contamination and suggests contact between patients and animals or between health personnel and animals in their living environment. S. aureus is the unique coagulase-positive strain isolated, and its pathogenicity is reported to be related to the expression of several virulence factors [22]. In addition, some CNS such as S. saprophyticus va S. epidermis through their ability to adhere to the bladder epithelium are able to cause cystitis in young women, and S. lugdunensis is responsible for skin infections and infectious endocarditis [23].

The distribution of species according to the sampling units shows that S. aureus isolates are found in all the units. However, pediatrics unit was the most contaminated (33%) by S. aureus. This high presence in these various units is worrying when we know that the deficient immune status of patients represents a breeding ground for its pathogenic microorganisms to trigger an infection. In addition, 30% of the African strains of S. aureus isolated from all types of samples have been shown to produce the LPV toxin [24, 25].

In general, hospital bacteria are resistant to several classes of antibiotics. Therefore, beyond the ubiquitous nature of staphylococcal strains, we must add their exceptional ability to develop multidrug resistance to several antibiotics [26]. The S. aureus strain isolated in this study showed a high level of resistance to cephalothin followed by fosfomycin and cefoxitin. On the other hand, the relatively low resistance rate of S. aureus isolates was observed with chloramphenicol and vancomycin. This resistance to cephalothin recorded suggests that these strains have already been in contact with this generation of cephalosporin. In addition, this confirms the presence of methicillin-resistant S. aureus since the cephalothins are only active on sensitive S. aureus. Similarly, resistance rate to fosfomycin and cefoxitin on clinical strains was observed in Brazzaville [27]. Considering fosfomycin, our results are contrary to those obtained in Algeria on clinically isolated S. aureus where it was about 90% of sensitivity [28]. This difference observed between our results may be explained by the intensity of the contact between this antibiotic and the S. aureus strains in these two countries. The resistance rate to cefoxitin (87.5%) observed in our study is higher than the 43% obtained on S. aureus in the hospital environment at the public hospital center of Boufarik in Algeria [29]. These results suggest that 87.5% of S. aureus obtained in our study is resistant to methicillin (MRSA). Our recorded data are much higher than the rate of MRSA observed in French hospitals, which was from 10% to 16.5% in 2016 [30]. Nevertheless, S. aureus showed weak resistance to chloramphenicol (15%) and vancomycin (25%). Indeed, a low resistance rate for chloramphenicol (0.6%) had been mentioned on community-acquired S. aureus in Morocco [31].

The proportion of resistance to vancomycin is lower than the 63.63% obtained on clinical strains of S. aureus [27]. However, the efficacy of vancomycin has been demonstrated both on food [32] and clinically isolated S. aureus strains [29]. In addition, Daurel et al. [33] estimated that approximately 90% of MRSA is hospital-based and that vancomycin may be an alternative for resistance. Therefore, according to observed results, chloramphenicol and vancomycin could be alternative molecules in cases of hospital-acquired MRSA infections. CNS have also high proportions of resistance to fosfomycin and penicillin. Data recorded with fosfomycin are contrary to those published in Algeria [34]. This difference could be explained by a very moderate use of fosfomycin on staphylococcal strains in Algeria. Meanwhile, they reported about 60% resistance of CNS to penicillin. However, the CNS have shown low resistance to gentamycin and ciprofloxacin. This finding on the low rate of resistance to gentamycin and ciprofloxacin had been observed on clinical CNS isolates in Mali [21]. Given all these results, we believe that an improvement in antibiotic therapy must be taken seriously in these various services.

Many staphylococci have the capacity to produce biofilm, which makes it easier for them to adhere to medical equipment and surface. The biofilm formation test reveals that 37% of our isolates were biofilm formers. This rate is lower than the 89% obtained on staphylococcal strains isolated from medical implants in Algeria [35]. Considering species, it is observed that all S. lugdunensis va S. warneri isolated were formative of biofilm followed by S. epidermis (60%). This proportion of biofilm formation by S. lugdunensis va S. warneri is higher than the result obtained by Ahouandjinou [36], which was 28% and 20%, respectively, for S. lugdunensis va S. warneri on food Stafilokok spp. shtammlar This difference could be explained by the low representativeness of these isolates and the origin of collected samples. Our results on S. epidermis corroborate those of Kara-Terki [37], who revealed that 53.5% of the strains of S. epidermis isolated from urinary catheters were biofilm-forming. However, no biofilm formation was noticed with species such as S. cohnii ssp. cohnii, S. gemolyticus, va S. saprophyticus isolated in this study. We can say that isolated S. aureus and biofilm-forming CNS are dangerous germs since their virulence also resides in the capacity to produce an extracellular matrix and constitute a biofilm [38].

It should be remembered that in our study, the influence of biofilm formation on antibiotics resistance was not observed since some strains, although biofilm-forming, were found to be sensitive to certain antibiotics. This could be explained by the fact that we used planktonic colonies to carry out the susceptibility assay. This is why Fitzpatrick et al. [38] consider that antibiotic usually active on bacteria in the planktonic state often proves to be less effective on structures organized in biofilm. Therefore, the eradication of a bacterial biofilm represents a big clinical problem.

5. Xulosa

Among the thirteen staphylococcal species identified in the hospital environment, S. aureus was the only coagulase-positive staphylococci isolated. These isolates are of various origins, and this implies poor practice of hygienic rules. It is also observed that these identified Stafilokok strains display variable resistance profiles to tested antibiotics. Antibiotics such as chloramphenicol and vancomycin are more effective on S. aureus. The coagulase-negative Stafilokok strains developed less resistance to gentamycin and ciprofloxacin. The capacity of staphylococcal cells to form biofilm was high with S. lugdunensis, S. warneri, va S. epidermis shtammlar Among the prevention strategies, the optimal use of antibiotics is the cornerstone of the reduction of antibiotic resistance. However, regular monitoring of hospital hygiene is crucial with the use of biodetergents suitable for combating the formation of bacterial biofilms. To end, an evaluation of toxin production by isolated species and a molecular characterization could better inform on their pathogenicity level.

Ma'lumotlarning mavjudligi

Ushbu tadqiqot natijalarini qo'llab -quvvatlash uchun ishlatiladigan ma'lumotlar tegishli muallifdan so'rov bo'yicha mavjud.

Manfaatlar to'qnashuvi

The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.

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Copyright

Copyright © 2020 Akim Socohou et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Isolation of Gram-Positive, Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria from Tactile Mobile Phones in a Northwestern Mexican City

The widespread use of touch-screen mobile devices renders them potential fomites for the transmission of bacterial pathogens among users of different ages. The objectives of the present research were to isolate bacteria from mobile phones, perform molecular and phylogenetic identification, and determine the antibiotic resistance profiles. The surfaces of 50 touch-screen mobile devices owned by bystanders were sampled in the city center of Culiacan, Sinaloa, Mexico. The samples were cultured on nutritive agar 13 bacterial colonies were isolated and characterized based on their macroscopic and microscopic characteristics and then identified using PCR amplification and sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene V4 and V6 regions. Their taxonomic relationships were determined via a Bayesian inference approach. Antimicrobial resistance was evaluated via disc diffusion and broth microdilution assays. Species of the genera Stafilokok, Bacillus, va Enterokokk were identified on 84.6, 7.7, and 7.7% of the mobile phones, respectively. A unique subgroup of Staphylococcus epidermidis was identified in strains FBOPL-23, CAEPL-28, and FREPL-28. Staphylococcus hominis novobiosepticus was also identified on mobile phones for the first time. Of the isolated bacteria, 92.3% were resistant to erythromycin, 76.9% to ampicillin and penicillin, 61.5% to dicloxacillin, 38.5% to cephalothin and 7.7% to cefotaxime and ceftriaxone. The presence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria of clinical relevance poses potential risks to users' health and the dissemination of antibiotic resistance mechanisms throughout the community thus, we recommend regular cleaning to prevent cross-infection by multidrug-resistant bacteria when using touch-screen mobile devices.

Bu obuna tarkibini oldindan ko'rish, sizning muassasangiz orqali kirish.


Isolation and Antimicrobial Resistance of Stafilokok spp. in Freshwater Fish and Greek Marketplaces

The presence and antibiotic resistance of Stafilokok spp. in freshwater fish and the environment of fish markets of Northern Greece were investigated. A total of 269 samples were examined, consisting of 71 rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), 65 gibel carp (Carassius gibelio), and 133 environmental samples swabbed from various surfaces at fish markets.Stafilokok spp. was isolated from 27% of the samples, and 16%, 9%, 0.7%, 0.4% and 0.4% were found to be positive for S. aureus, S. epidermidis, S. warneri, S. hominis-hominis, va S. haemolyticusmos ravishda. All isolates were examined for their susceptibility to 20 antibiotics. Hech biri S. aureus isolates were resistant to oxacillin and glycopeptides. Uch S. epidermidis, ikkita S. Warneri, va bitta S. haemolyticus isolates were resistant to oxacillin (methicillin resistant Staphylococcus, MRS). All isolates, except one, showed resistance to as many as 15 antibiotics. The population of Stafilokok spp. in fish did not exceed 1.0 log CFU/g. Freshwater fish and the environments of retail fish markets were found to harbor multi-drug resistant staphylococci. Whether these findings present a real health risk for humans and to what extent needs to be evaluated.


Determination of antibiotic susceptibility and decarboxylase activity of coagulase-negative Stafilokok va Macrococcus caseolyticus strains isolated from fermented Turkish sausage (sucuk)

Xat yozish Yasin Tuncer, Department of Food Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Süleyman Demirel University, Isparta 32260, Turkey. Email: [email protected] Search for more papers by this author

Department of Food Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Süleyman Demirel University, Isparta, 32260 Turkey

Department of Food Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Süleyman Demirel University, Isparta, 32260 Turkey

Xat yozish Yasin Tuncer, Department of Food Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Süleyman Demirel University, Isparta 32260, Turkey. Email: [email protected] Search for more papers by this author

Funding information: Süleyman Demirel University Scientific Research Project Coordination Unit, Grant/Award Number: 3564-YL2-13

Xulosa

The aim of this research was to detect antibiotic susceptibility patterns and amino acid decarboxylase activity of 61 presumptive coagulase-negative Stafilokok (CNS) strains from the Turkish dry fermented sausage (sucuk). The presumptive CNS strains were identified at species levels as 21 S. saprophyticus, 16 S. epidermidis, 10 Macrococcus caseolyticus, 4 S. xylosus, 3 S. sciuri, 2 S. hominis, 2 S. warneri, 1 S. cohnii, 1 S. pasteuriva 1 S. vitulinus by 16S rDNA sequence analysis. S. saprophyticus va S. epidermidis species were found highly resistant to antibiotics than other species. In addition, most of the CNS and M. caseolyticus strains showed multiple antibiotic resistance profiles. None of the CNS and M. caseolyticus strains did not decarboxylate histidine, lysine, or ornithine, but only three CNS strains produced tyramine from tyrosine. A 100% correlation was found between the presence of tdc gene and tyramine production in tyraminogenic strains.

Practical applications

Coagulase-negative Stafilokok (CNS) strains play an important role in production of traditional fermented sausages such as sucuk. Ushbu tadqiqotda, S. saprophyticus va S. epidermidis were found the most common isolated CNS species from sucuk. Antibiotic resistance was detected widespread in CNS and M. caseolyticus shtammlar Most of the CNS strains were found resistant to clinically relevant antibiotics. Antibiotic resistance strains may be dangerous for consumer health. These strains can be a potential reservoir to spread of antibiotic resistance gene between staphylococci and other species of bacteria. In addition, biogenic amine production was not found widespread in CNS strains.


Videoni tomosha qiling: staphylococcus epidermidis quick review - Medvizz microbiology animations (Avgust 2022).