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9.18: Qo'ziqorinlarning tasnifiga kirish - biologiya

9.18: Qo'ziqorinlarning tasnifiga kirish - biologiya


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Zamburug'larni noyob toifalarga ajrating

Zamburug'lar qirolligi jinsiy ko'payish usuli yoki molekulyar ma'lumotlardan foydalangan holda tashkil etilgan beshta asosiy filani o'z ichiga oladi. Molekulyar biologiyaning jadal rivojlanishi va 18S rRNK (RNKning bir qismi) ketma -ketligi zamburug'larning har xil toifalari o'rtasida yangi va har xil munosabatlarni ko'rsatishda davom etmoqda.

Qo'ziqorinlarning beshta haqiqiy filasi - xitridiomikota (xitridlar), zigomikota (konjugatsiyalangan qo'ziqorinlar), askomikota (sumkali zamburug'lar), basidiomikota (klub qo'ziqorinlari) va yaqinda tasvirlangan filum Glomeromikota. Deuteromikota - bu bir -biriga bog'liq bo'lmagan qo'ziqorinlarning norasmiy guruhi, ular bir xil xarakterga ega - ular aseksual ko'paytirishdan foydalanadilar.

Eslatma: "-mycota" filumni belgilash uchun ishlatiladi, "-mycetes" esa rasmiy ravishda sinfni bildiradi yoki norasmiy ravishda filumning barcha a'zolariga murojaat qilish uchun ishlatiladi.

Siz nima qilishni o'rganasiz

  • Chytridiomycota filumidagi qo'ziqorinlarning xususiyatlarini va misollarini aniqlang
  • Zygomycota filumidagi zamburug'larning xususiyatlarini va misollarini aniqlang
  • Ascomycota filumidagi zamburug'larning xususiyatlarini va misollarini aniqlang
  • Basidiomycota filumidagi qo'ziqorinlarning xususiyatlarini va misollarini aniqlang
  • Glomeromycota filumidagi zamburug'larning xususiyatlarini va misollarini aniqlang
  • Deuteromycota norasmiy guruhidagi qo'ziqorinlarning xususiyatlarini va misollarini aniqlang

O'quv faoliyati

Ushbu bo'lim uchun o'quv faoliyati quyidagilarni o'z ichiga oladi:

  • Chitridiomikota: xitridlar
  • Zygomycota: Konjugatsiyalangan zamburug'lar
  • Ascomycota: Qo'ziqorin qo'ziqorinlari
  • Basidiomikota: qo'ziqorinlar klubi
  • Glomeromikotalar
  • Deuteromycota: nomukammal zamburug'lar
  • O'z -o'zini tekshirish: qo'ziqorinlarning tasnifi

9.18: Zamburug'lar tasnifiga kirish - biologiya

Vegetativ tallusning tashkil etilishi, ko'payish tuzilmalarining morfologiyasi, spora hosil bo'lish yo'li va o'ziga xos hayot aylanishi asosida mikotalar qirolligi quyidagi bo'limlarga bo'linadi.

Fikomitsetalar

U qo'ziqorinlarning eng oddiy turini o'z ichiga oladi. U suv o'tlari-zamburug'lar deb ham ataladi, chunki ularning ko'p xususiyatlari suvo'tlarga o'xshaydi Vaucheriya.

Umumiy xususiyatlar:

  • Ular bir hujayrali yoki koenotsitik yoki aseptat filamentlardan iborat oddiy tallusga ega.
  • Ular zoosporalar yoki harakatsiz sporalar hosil qilish orqali jinssiz ravishda ko'payadilar.
  • Jinsiy ko'payish izogam yoki geterogam bo'lib, gametangial aloqa orqali sodir bo'ladi.
  • Diploid fazasi zigota bilan ifodalanadi.

Fikomitsetlar kichik sinflarga bo'lingan: oomitsetalar va zigomitsetlar.

Oomitsetler

manba: en.wikipedia.org anjir: Phytophthora infestans (kartoshka kasalligini keltirib chiqaradi)

Umumiy xususiyatlar

  • Oomitsetlar ibtidoiy bir hujayrali tallusdan to koʻp tarmoqlangan filamentsimon mitseliygacha boʻladi.
  • Ularning ko'p a'zolari quruqlikdagi va majburiy parazitlardir.
  • Jinssiz ravishda ular biflagellatli zoosporalar bilan ko'payadi.
  • Jinsiy ko'payish - bu oogamiya bo'lib, erkak va urg'ochi gametalarning oospora hosil bo'lishidan iborat.
  • Oospora gaploid biflagellat zoosporalarini hosil qilish uchun meiozlarga uchraydi.

Misol Phytophthora infestans (kartoshka kasalligiga olib keladi)

Zigomitsetalar

Guruh zigomitsetlar deb ataladi, chunki zigospora deb ataladigan diploid tinch spora hayot aylanish jarayonida hosil bo'ladi.

manba: imagict.com anjir: Rizop

Umumiy xususiyatlar

  • Ular asosan saprofit, ba'zilari o'simlik va hayvonlarda parazitdir.
  • Vegetativ tanasi - yaxshi rivojlangan, juda tarvaqaylab ketgan va koenotsitli mitseliy.
  • Harakatlanuvchi jinsiy yoki aseksual hujayralarning yo'qligi.
  • Aseksual ko'payish sporangiosporlar, aplanosporlar yoki konidiyalar orqali sodir bo'ladi.
  • Jinsiy ko'payish gametangiyaning konjugatsiyasi natijasida sodir bo'ladi, natijada zigospor hosil bo'ladi.

Misollar Rhizopus, Mukor va boshqalar

Askomitsetlar

Askomitsetlarning turlarini sumkali qo'ziqorinlar deb atashadi, chunki ular xaltaga o'xshash bo'shliqda jinsiy teshiklar hosil qiladi.

manba: Lovecraftian Science.wordpress.com anjir: Penitsilium

Umumiy xususiyatlar

  • Askomitsetlar asosan quruqlikda, saprofitlar yoki parazitlar shaklida uchraydi.
  • Ularda xamirturushdan tashqari yaxshi rivojlangan, tarvaqaylab ketgan, septali miselyum bor. Xamirturush bir hujayrali qo'ziqorin hisoblanadi.
  • Aseksual tarzda ular harakatsiz sporalar, konidiyalar, tegishli yoki xlamidosporlar orqali ko'payadi.
  • Jinsiy ko'payish qarama -qarshi turdagi gametangiyalarning birlashishi natijasida sodir bo'ladi.
  • Harakatlanuvchi hujayralar yo'q.

Misollar, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Penicillium, Aspergillus va boshqalar.

Bazidiomitsetlar

Bazidiomitsetlarning a'zolari saprofit yoki parazitdir. Guruh bazidiomitsetlar deb nomlanadi, chunki ular jinsiy ko'payish paytida klub shaklidagi bazidiumda bazidiosporalar hosil qiladi.

manba: kashfiyot jurnali.com anjir: qo'ziqorinlar

Umumiy xususiyatlar

  • Miselyum juda rivojlangan, juda tarvaqaylab ketgan va septatli.
  • Miselyalar ikkita juftlashuvchi turga bo'linadi (+ve) va (-ve).
  • Birlamchi mitseliy va ikkilamchi mitseliyning ikki turi mavjud.
  • Aseksual ko'payish parchalanish, tomurcuklanma, tegishli, konidiya yoki xlamidospor orqali sodir bo'ladi.
  • Dikaryotik hujayra jinsiy ko'payish paytida hosil bo'ladi.
  • Hayot davomida harakatlanuvchi hujayraning yo'qligi.
  • Bazidiomitsetlar eng ilg'or zamburug'lardir, chunki ularning mevasi ko'pincha katta va ko'zga tashlanadi.

Misollar qo'ziqorin, Puccinia, Ustilago va boshqalar.

manba: livegpath.cals.cornell.edu anjir: Alternariya

Deuteromitsetlar (nomukammal zamburug'lar)

Deuteromitsetlar turli xil odatlar va yashash joylarining 17000 dan ortiq turlarini buzadi. U qo'ziqorinlarning sun'iy sinfi sifatida qaraladi.

Umumiy xususiyatlar:

  • Qo'ziqorinlar saprofitlar va parazitlardir.Parazitik zamburug'lar o'simliklar, hayvonlar, shu jumladan insonlar uchun jiddiy kasalliklarni keltirib chiqaradi.
  • Ulardan ba'zilari bir hujayrali, boshqalari esa ko'p hujayrali.
  • Ular boshqa sporalar bilan bir qatorda konidiyalar orqali jinssiz ko'payadi.
  • Jinsiy ko'payish umuman yo'q.
  • Deuteromitsetlarda aseksual bosqich yoki nomukammal bosqich yaxshi aniqlangan. Ammo jinsiy yoki mukammal bosqich hayot tsiklida yo'q, shuning uchun ularni "qo'ziqorin nomukammal" deb atashadi.

Misol Alternariya, fusarium, gelmintosporium va boshqalar.

Oziq-ovqat yuk mashinasi SpaceTeam yagona bo'yinbog 'virusli juftlik dasturini birlashtiradi, katta hajmli ma'lumotlar bazasi intuitiv intuitiv uzun soya prototipini birlashtiradi. Intuitiv boshqariladigan xakerlar

Jeykob Sims

Prototip intuitiv intuitiv fikr yetakchi personas parallaks paradigma uzun soya jalb yagona shoxli SpaceTeam fondi ideate paradigma.

Kelli Devit

Hackerlarning intuitiv boshqariladigan sharsharasi 2000 yilga to'g'ri keladi va kech intuitiv kortadoning boshlang'ich shovqin kapitali. Jozibali oziq-ovqat yuk mashinalari intuitiv juft dasturlash Stiv Jobs mutafakkir-yaratuvchi-ijrochi insonga yo'naltirilgan dizayn.

Affordances oziq-ovqat yuk mashinasi SpaceTeam unicorn integratsiya virusli juft dasturlash katta ma'lumotlar pitch pastki intuitiv intuitiv prototip uzoq soya buzadi. Intuitiv boshqariladigan xakerlar

Luqo Smit

Unicorn virusli juftlik dasturini birlashtiradi, katta hajmli ma'lumotlar bazasi intuitiv intuitiv uzoq soyali prototip. Hacker intuitiv tarzda boshqariladi

Fikr qoldiring:
Eslash kerak bo'lgan narsalar
  • Fikomitsetlarni alg-zamburug'lar deb ham atashadi, chunki ularning aksariyat xususiyatlari suv o'tlari bilan o'xshash. Vaucheriya.
  • Oomitsetlar ibtidoiy bir hujayrali talusdan juda tarvaqaylab ketgan filamentli mitseliygacha.
  • Oospore mayozlardan o'tib, haploid biflagellat zoosporalarini hosil qiladi.
  • Guruh zigomitsetlar deb ataladi, chunki zigospora deb ataladigan diploid tinch spora hayot aylanish jarayonida hosil bo'ladi.
  • Deuteromitsetlar qo'ziqorinlarning sun'iy sinfi hisoblanadi.
  • Deyteromisetlarda aseksual bosqich yoki nomukammal bosqich yaxshi aniqlangan. Ammo hayot tsiklida jinsiy yoki mukammal bosqich yo'q, shuning uchun ular "Fungi Imperfecti" deb ataladi.
  • Bu odamlar o'rtasida o'rnatilgan barcha munosabatlarni o'z ichiga oladi.
  • Jamiyatda bir nechta jamoa bo'lishi mumkin. Jamiyat jamiyatdan kichikroq.
  • Bu ko'rish yoki tegib bo'lmaydigan ijtimoiy munosabatlar tarmog'i.
  • umumiy manfaatlar va umumiy maqsadlar jamiyat uchun zarur emas.

Kullabs bilan aloqada bo'ling. Bizni deyarli barcha ijtimoiy media platformalarida topishingiz mumkin.


Bu erda nima borligi haqida ko'rsatma

Bu uzun bo'lim va sizni hamma mavzular qiziqtirmasligi mumkin. Sizni qiziqtiradigan biror narsa borligini aniqlashga yordam berish uchun bu erda kichik bo'limlarning qisqacha tavsifi. Boshqa hech narsa bo'lmasa - harakat qilib ko'ring Makroskopik xususiyatlar. Agar siz qo'ziqorinlarni diqqat bilan ko'rib chiqmagan bo'lsangiz, faqat fotosuratlar sizga yalang'och ko'z bilan yoki kattalashtiruvchi oyna bilan ko'rishingiz mumkin bo'lgan turli xususiyatlarni ko'rsatadi.

  • Tasniflash va identifikatsiya
    Tasniflash va identifikatsiya o'rtasidagi farqni tushuntirish.
  • Tasniflash ierarxiyasi
    Tasniflash ierarxiyasining qisqacha tavsifi, batafsilroq havola.
  • Yana tasniflash va identifikatsiya qilish
    Nima uchun qo'ziqorinlarni tasniflash va identifikatsiyalashda faqat "aniq" xususiyatlar ishlatilmaydi?
  • Makroskopik xususiyatlar
    Qo'ziqorinlarni o'rganishda ishlatiladigan yalang'och ko'zning ko'plab xususiyatlarini tushuntirish va tasvirlarga havolalar. Boshqa hech narsa bo'lmasa, bu sizni oddiy qo'ziqorinlarga yangi nuqtai nazardan qarashga majbur qilishi mumkin.
  • Mikroskopik tuzilmalar
    Zamburug'larni o'rganishda qo'llaniladigan ba'zi asosiy mikroskopik xususiyatlar bilan tanishish.
  • Strukturaviy bo'lmagan xususiyatlar
    Qo'ziqorinlarni chuqurroq tushunish uchun sizga makroskopik va mikroskopik strukturaviy xususiyatlardan ko'proq narsa kerak. Qo'ziqorinlar dunyosini yoritadigan boshqa usullar.
  • Bo'lgan va bo'lmagan munosabatlar
    Aloqalar har doim ham aniq emas. Bu erda ba'zi misollar.
  • Tasniflash va identifikatsiya - yakuniy so'zlar
    Bizni boshlagan joyimizga qaytaradigan qisqa misol.

Tasniflash va identifikatsiya

Oldinga borishdan oldin, tasniflash va identifikatsiya o'rtasidagi farqni ta'kidlash kerak.

Tasniflash quyidagi savollarga javob beradi: Bu qo'ziqorin boshqa qo'ziqorinlar bilan qanday bog'liq?

Identifikatsiya eng dolzarb savolga javob beradi: Oldimda turgan namunaning ismi nima?

Ikki organizmning bir-biriga bog'liqligini aytish ularning umumiy ajdodi borligini aytish bilan bir xil bo'ladi - ehtimol yaqin o'tmishda yoki ehtimol uzoq o'tmishda. Ushbu umumiy ajdod yaqin yoki uzoq o'tmishda yashaganiga qarab, biz ikkala organizm haqida yaqin yoki uzoq bog'langan deb gapirishimiz mumkin. Bu odamlar o'rtasidagi munosabatlar haqidagi kundalik g'oyani aks ettiradi, chunki biz aytamizki, agar ikkita ota-onasi bir-biri bilan chambarchas bog'liq bo'lsa-da, lekin ular uzoq qarindoshlari sifatida gaplashsa, bobo-buvilar ularning eng oxirgi umumiy ajdodlari bo'lsa.

Shuning uchun tasnif evolyutsiya tarixi bilan bog'liq va yaxshi tasniflash sxemasi evolyutsion jihatdan yaqin organizmlarni bir-biriga yaqin guruhlashi kerak. Bu qo'ziqorin tuzilishi (ham makroskopik, ham mikroskopik) va zamburug'li biologiyaning ko'p qirralarini yaxshi tushunishni talab qiladi, chunki har xil jihatlar munosabatlar haqida har xil dalillarni beradi. To'g'ri tasnifni ishlab chiqish uchun barcha dalillar baholanishi kerak.

Aslida, tasnif kabutar teshiklarini yaratishni o'z ichiga oladi, ularga tegishli qo'ziqorinlar joylashadi. Turli xil kabutar teshiklari yaratilgandan so'ng, mikologlar o'rtasida qulay muloqotni ta'minlash uchun har biriga o'ziga xos nom beriladi.

Kabutar tuynugiga o'xshashlikni davom ettirsak, identifikatsiya sizning oldingizda namunani olib, uni to'g'ri kaptar teshigiga qo'yishga o'xshaydi. Qo'ziqorinlarni aniqlash bo'yicha ko'plab qo'llanmalar mavjud va ular hajmi va mazmuni jihatidan farq qilsa -da, haqiqiy identifikatsiyalash tartibi ularning har birida deyarli bir xil. Sizdan namunangizning xususiyatlariga oid bir qator savollar beriladi, har bir keyingi savol sizga bittasi qolmaguningizcha mumkin bo'lgan teshiklarni biroz qisqartiradi. Bu ko'pincha juda mexanik jarayon va asosan qo'ziqorin tasnifini tushunishni talab qilmaydi. Ya'ni, ko'pincha bu kaptar teshiklari qanday yaratilganligini tushunishning hojati yo'q. Bu biroz pishirishga o'xshaydi - agar siz retseptdagi ko'rsatmalarga amal qilsangiz, o'zingizga mazali pirojnoe pishirasiz. Siz tuxum, un, sut va xamirturush kabi narsalarni taniy olishingiz kerak, lekin bu tarkibiy qismlarning vazifasini bilishingiz shart emas. Albatta, yaxshi oshpaz ingredientlar nima qilishini biladi va keyin ingredientlarni oqilona almashtirishi yoki muayyan maqsadlar uchun retseptni o'zgartirishi mumkin. Xuddi shunday, qo'ziqorinlar tasnifi haqidagi bilimlar sizga qo'ziqorinlar dunyosini yaxshiroq tushunishga imkon beradi, aniqlashda aqlli yorliqlarni ishlatishga va tushunmovchiliklardan saqlanishga yordam beradi.

Tasniflash ierarxiyasi

Tirik dunyoda har xil darajadagi qarindoshlik bor va bu turli darajadagi munosabatlar har xil darajadagi tasniflash ierarxiyasi tushunchasiga olib keladi. qirollik, bo'linish (yoki filum), sinf, tartib, oila, tur, tur. Bu ketma -ketlik kengdan nozikgacha boradi. Ya'ni, podshohlik bir qancha bo'linmalarni o'z ichiga oladi, har bir bo'linma bir qator sinflarni o'z ichiga oladi, har bir sinf bir qator buyruqlarni o'z ichiga oladi va hokazo.

Agar siz yuqorida ko'rsatilgan atamalarning texnik qo'llanilishi bilan tanish bo'lmasangiz, bu erda tasniflash ierarxiyasi, turlarining nomlari va identifikatsiyalash bo'limi haqidagi asosiy tushunchalarga soddalashtirilgan kirish mavjud.

Tur nomi-bu ikkita lotin (yoki soxta lotin) so'zlarning noyob kombinatsiyasi. Bu kombinatsiya a deb nomlanadi binomial. Ushbu veb-saytdagi fotosuratlar tur nomlari bilan etiketlangan bo'lsa, bu nomlar (masalan Schizophyllum kommunasi bu holda) <<042>> binomiallarga misol bo'la oladi. Avvalgi kabutar tuynugiga o'xshab, bizning kaptar teshiklaridan birida yorliq bor deb ayta olamiz. Schizophyllum kommunasi ustida.

Yana bir bor, agar siz ilmiy nomlarning tuzilishi bilan tanish bo'lmasangiz, bu erda asosiy faktlar tushuntiriladi TASNIF IEARXİYASI, TURLAR NOMLARI VA Identifikatsiya bo'limi >>. Bu havola, shuningdek, bir necha qo'ziqorin turlarining turli darajalarini berib, ierarxiyaning ba'zi misollarini o'z ichiga oladi va tegishli mavzular bo'yicha ba'zi ma'lumotlarni o'z ichiga oladi.

Ushbu veb-sayt mavzusi bo'lgan barcha (makro) zamburug'lar bitta qirollikka (Eumycota deb ataladi) tegishli va Eumycota uchun bundan ham ko'proq narsa bor, ammo Eumycotaning qolgan qismi ushbu veb-sayt doirasidan tashqarida.

> Bu (makro) qo'ziqorinlarni sporlar asci yoki bazidiyada hosil bo'lishiga qarab ikki guruhga bo'lish mumkin. Tasniflash ierarxiyasida asci bo'lgan qo'ziqorinlar Ascomycota deb nomlangan bo'linmani tashkil qiladi va bazidiya bilan kasallanganlar Basidiomycota bo'limini tashkil qiladi. Bu ikkita texnik nomlar oddiy inglizcha ascomycete va basidiomycete so'zlariga juda o'xshash. Odamlar ko'pincha "yuqori darajadagi" yoki "past darajadagi" tasniflash xususiyatlari haqida gapirishadi. Birinchisi bo'linish va sinf kabi yuqori guruhlarning ta'rifida, ikkinchisi esa quyi darajalarda - masalan, nasl va turlarni aniqlash uchun ishlatiladi. Bu ma'noda asci va basidiya juda yuqori darajadagi tasniflovchi xususiyatlardir.

Mikrofungal basidiomitsetalar va ascomitsetalar mavjud, ammo ular ushbu veb -sayt doirasidan tashqarida.

(Makro) zamburug'lar Eumycota qirolligining ikkita bo'linmasida joylashgan bo'lsa-da, "zamburug'lar" deb nomlanishi mumkin bo'lgan organizmlarning to'liq spektri (so'l va mikro) uchta qirollikda joylashgan. "Qo'ziqorinlar" ning yuqori darajadagi tasnifida qo'llaniladigan xususiyatlarning izohi <>.

Endi tasniflash va identifikatsiyalash mavzusi bo'yicha qisqacha aylanma yo'l bo'ladi. Shundan so'ng tasniflash yoki identifikatsiyalashda ishlatiladigan xususiyatlar turlariga misollar bo'ladi.

Yana tasnif va identifikatsiya


Omfalotus nidiformis (yuqorida) zulmatda porlaydi

Omfalotus nidiformis (chapda)

Tasniflashda ishlatiladigan ko'plab xususiyatlar yoki usullar namunalarni identifikatsiyalashda ham tez -tez ishlatiladi va ko'pincha bu muqarrar. Misol uchun, yorqinlik - bu jinsni belgilovchi xususiyatlardan biri Omfalot, uning misoli hamrohlik qiladigan fotosuratlarda ko'rsatilgan. <<001, 002>> Bu oson kuzatilishi mumkin bo'lgan tasniflash xususiyati, shubhasiz, juda foydali identifikatsiya xususiyatidir.

Biroq, kundalik identifikatsiya ishlarida klassifikatorlik xususiyatlari har doim ham zarur emas. Masalan, DNK tahlili hozirda turli organizmlar o'rtasidagi munosabatlarni o'rganish uchun keng qo'llaniladi. DNK tahlili ko'pincha yangiliklarda, chunki u jinoiy tergovda sud-tibbiyot vositasi sifatida ishlatiladi. Keyinchalik DNK tahlili haqida biroz ko'proq ma'lumot beriladi. Hozirgi vaqtda DNK tahlili kuchli tasniflash vositasi ekanligini bilish kifoya, lekin u maxsus uskunalarni talab qiladi va ko'p hollarda oddiy identifikatsiya ishlarida amaliy emas. Shunday qilib, mikologlar ko'pincha kundalik identifikatsiyalash ishlarining ko'p qismi uchun osonroq kuzatilgan xususiyatlardan foydalanadilar.

Agar qo'ziqorinlarni tasniflash uchun maxsus texnika zarur bo'lsa, qanday qilib uni aniqlash uchun ishlatishdan qochish mumkin? Muhimi shundaki, zamburug'larni qanday tasniflash haqidagi fikrlarimiz o'zgarmoqda (ba'zida ism o'zgarishi mumkin), qo'ziqorinlar o'zgarmaydi. Ba'zi zamburug'lar shu qadar o'ziga xos va o'xshashligi yo'qki, ularni har doim o'ziga xos xususiyatlar bilan tanib olishingiz mumkin. Albatta, siz bergan tur nomi vaqt o'tishi bilan o'zgarishi mumkin, lekin siz qidirayotgan identifikatsiya xususiyatlari o'zgarmaydi. Bu bir necha marta turmush qurgan do'stga o'xshaydi. O'zgaruvchan munosabatlarni isbotlash uchun sizga nikoh to'g'risidagi guvohnoma kerak bo'lishi mumkin, lekin bu qog'ozlar identifikatsiyalash uchun ahamiyatsiz. Do'stingizni har doim o'ziga xos ko'rinishidan taniysiz.

Turlar Kalostoma fuskum <<070>> yalang'och ko'z xususiyatlariga ko'ra darhol aniqlanishi mumkin. Biroq, uning boshqa zamburug'lar bilan aloqasi uzoq vaqtdan beri muhokama qilinib kelmoqda, yaqinda DNK tadqiqotlari o'tkazildi. Bu haqida ’s haqida quyida BILAN BILAN BILAN BILAN BO'LGAN MUNOSABATLARDA

Odamlar ba'zan so'rashadi: Agar siz osonlik bilan kuzatiladigan xususiyatlardan foydalanib biror narsani aniqlay olsangiz, nega bu xususiyatlarni tasniflash uchun ishlatmaysiz va DNK tahlili kabi "amaliy" usullarni unutasiz? Oddiy kuzatiladigan xususiyatlarga tayanish munosabatlar haqida noto'g'ri xulosalarga olib kelishi mumkin. Oddiy bir misol uchun, bizda ikkita aka -uka bor deylik. Biri butun yozni yopiq uyda o'tkazadi (va terisi ochiq qoladi), ikkinchisi har kuni Avstraliyaning quyoshli plyajida (va chuqur tus oladi). Yozning oxirida er yuziga tashrif buyurgan begona teri rangining xususiyatlaridan foydalanib, birodarlar bir -biriga aloqasi yo'q degan xulosaga keldi. Boshqa tomondan, batafsilroq tekshirish begonaga ikkala aka-uka ham qora teri pigmentlarini ishlab chiqarishi mumkinligini va terining rangi noto'g'ri tasniflovchi xususiyat ekanligini ko'rsatdi. Birodarning qoraygan terisi shunchaki quyoshli muhitga tanasining javobi edi.

DNKdagi o'xshashlik evolyutsion yaqinlikni aks ettiradi, shuning uchun DNK tahlilining foydaliligi. Albatta, organizmning tashqi ko'rinishi DNKga juda bog'liq, ammo terining namlangan misolidan ko'rinib turibdiki, tashqi ko'rinishning ba'zi jihatlari organizmning o'ziga xos xususiyatlaridan ko'ra, atrofdagi muhitga javob berishdan boshqa narsa emas. Tasniflash sxemasi atrof -muhit tomonidan osongina o'zgartirilishi mumkin bo'lgan xususiyatlardan foydalanmasligi kerak. Tajriba shuni ko'rsatadiki, bir vaqtlar qo'ziqorinlarni tasniflashda juda ko'p tayangan ba'zi tashqi xususiyatlar yuqoridagi misoldagi qoraygan teri kabi chalg'ituvchidir.

Aytgancha, qo'ziqorinlar tasnifida (yoki identifikatsiyasida) rangning ahamiyati yo'q deb o'ylamang. Ko'pincha bu juda muhim xususiyat, lekin har doim ham emas. Ikki aka-uka misolida bo'lgani kabi, ranglarning sababini bilish muhimdir. Quyidagi fotosuratlarning har biri turlarni ko'rsatadi Flammulina velutipes. Yovvoyi tabiatda bu qo'ziqorin ozgina yopishqoq, apelsin qopqog'iga ega. Oq shakl qorong'uda, karbonat angidrid yuqori bo'lgan muhitda va qo'ziqorinlarning rivojlanayotgan klasterlari uzun naychalar orqali o'sishga majbur bo'lganda o'sadi. Siz o'stirilgan shaklni ko'plab supermarketlarda yoki Osiyo oziq-ovqat do'konlarida ko'rishingiz mumkin, u erda u nomi ostida sotiladi. engokitake.

FLAMMULINA VELUTIPES Rasmlarini oling

  • Makroskopik xususiyatlar
    Qo'ziqorinlarni o'rganishda ishlatiladigan yalang'och ko'zning ko'plab xususiyatlarini tushuntirish va tasvirlarga havolalar. Boshqa hech narsa bo'lmasa, bu sizni umumiy qo'ziqorinlarga yangi nuqtai nazardan qarashga majbur qilishi mumkin.
  • Mikroskopik tuzilmalar
    Zamburug'larni o'rganishda qo'llaniladigan ba'zi asosiy mikroskopik xususiyatlar bilan tanishish.
  • Strukturaviy bo'lmagan xususiyatlar
    Qo'ziqorinlarni chuqurroq tushunish uchun sizga ko'proq makroskopik va mikroskopik tuzilish xususiyatlari kerak bo'ladi. Qo'ziqorinlar dunyosini yoritadigan boshqa usullar.
  • Bo'lgan va bo'lmagan munosabatlar
    Aloqalar har doim ham aniq emas. Bu erda ba'zi misollar.

Tasniflash va identifikatsiya - yakuniy so'zlar

Ushbu bo'lim sizga qo'ziqorinlarni tasniflashning ba'zi vositalarini qisqacha ko'rib chiqdi va turli zamburug'lar o'rtasidagi bir nechta intuitiv bo'lmagan munosabatlarga ishora qildi. O'tgan uch asr mobaynida qo'ziqorinlar tasnifi o'zgardi, hozirda mikroskopik xususiyatlar katta ahamiyat kasb etmoqda va ba'zi mikroskopik kashfiyotlarning vaqti haqida qisqacha ma'lumot berilgan.>. Qo'ziqorin xatti -harakatining boshqa turli jihatlari qo'shimcha ma'lumot beradi. Har bir tadqiqot vositasi, ya'ni mevali tana shakli, spora xususiyatlari, juftlashish testlari yoki DNK tahlili zamburug'larga turlicha qarashni ta'minlaydi. Kuchli tasniflash sxemasini ishlab chiqish uchun qo'ziqorinlarga har xil vositalar yordamida murojaat qilish va ularning har biri bergan ma'lumotni baholash kerak.

Ba'zan bir yondashuvning dalillari boshqa yondashuvning dalillariga zid bo'lishi mumkin. Masalan, eski tasnif (muhim xususiyat sifatida "o'ziga xoslik" ga tayanib) barcha Inkcapslarni turkumga kiritdi. Koprin - lekin DNK tahlili shuni ko'rsatadiki, Inkcaps hammasi bitta jinsga tegishli emas - aslida, hatto bitta oilaga ham tegishli emas. Qarama-qarshi dalillarni olganingizda nima qilasiz? Shubhasiz, xatolar bor yoki yo'qligini bilish uchun usullarni qayta tekshiring. Agar shunday bo'lmasa, siz bitta dalilni boshqasidan ko'ra ishonchli deb qabul qilishingiz yoki masalani hal qilmagan holda qoldirishingiz mumkin. Natija juda xursand bo'lishi shart emas, lekin ba'zida muammoni bir chetga surib, muammoni hal qilish uchun kelajakdagi o'zgarishlarni kutish kerak.

Agarda Koprin, odamlar takomillashtirilgan texnikadan foydalanib, DNK tahlilini qayta o'tkazdilar va hali ham shunday xulosaga kelishdi. Shunisi e'tiborga loyiqki, DNK dalillari ba'zi mikologlar uchun ajablanarli emas edi, chunki mikologlar o'rtasidagi to'g'ri munosabatlar haqida jiddiy munozaralar (yuz yildan ortiq) bo'lgan. Koprin turlar. DNK natijalari turli xil makroskopik va mikroskopik tuzilmalarni qayta tekshirishga turtki bo'ldi Koprin turlar.

DNK dalillari buni ko'rsatadi Koprin komati va boshqa bir nechta turlar bir -biri bilan chambarchas bog'liq bo'lgan guruhni tashkil qiladi, shuning uchun bu turlarni o'z turlariga guruhlash uchun yaxshi dalillar bor. DNK dalillaridan tashqari, bu guruhdagi turlar boshqasida topilmagan ba'zi mikroskopik va makroskopik xususiyatlarga ega. Koprin turlar. Bir makroskopik xususiyatni ko'rish juda oson. Poyasi Koprin komati qattiq emas, balki quvurga o'xshaydi, lekin quvur bo'sh emas. Bo'shliq markazining uzunligi bo'ylab cho'zilgan va hech qanday maqsadga ega bo'lmagan, bir nechta gipa to'plamidan tashkil topgan, kesilgan sim bor. Bu fotosuratda quritilgan namuna ko'rsatilgan Koprin komatimarkaziy shnurni ochish uchun poyasi ochilgan holda. Ip DNK guvohlik beradigan boshqa turlarda mavjud Koprin komati - lekin shnur ularda yo'q Koprin bilan guruhlanmagan turlar Koprinus komatasi.

ning rasmida e'tiborga olish qiziq Koprin komati, 1781 yilda frantsuz tabiatshunosi Jan Baptiste Fransua "Pyer" Bulyard (1752-1793) kitobida nashr etilgan, bu shnur juda aniq ko'rsatilgan. Biroq, siyoh muhim xususiyat deb hisoblangan va shuning uchun u asl ta'rifda ishlatilgan Koprin. Agar (va "if" ni ta'kidlash kerak bo'lsa) turidagi turlar Koprin komati guruh qolganlardan ajratilgan Koprin turlar va o'z turiga kirgizilsa, bu gipal sim yangi avlod uchun juda foydali va ishlatish uchun qulay identifikator bo'ladi. Inkiness hali ham juda foydali xususiyat bo'lib qoladi, lekin uni oshirish kerak. Noqonuniylik sizni faqat bitta turga kiritmasa ham, u sizni kichik avlodlar guruhiga olib boradi, shundan so'ng siz jinsni aniqlash uchun qo'shimcha dalillardan (masalan, gipal sim) foydalanasiz.

Hozirgi vaqtda turlarning holati Koprin muhokama qilinmoqda va munozaralar hal qilinmaguncha va har qanday yangi avlod kelishib olinguncha ko'proq ishlash kerak.

Biroq Koprin Ish shuni ko'rsatadiki, qo'ziqorinlarni tasniflash uchun maxsus texnikadan foydalanilganda, ixtisoslashtirilgan texnika natijalari bilan bog'liq bo'lgan biror narsa bor-yo'qligini aniqlash uchun boshqa xususiyatlarni qayta tekshirish kerak. Bu har doim ham sodir bo'lmasligi mumkin, lekin hozirgi misolda, ichi bo'sh novda shnuri osongina kuzatiladigan xususiyat bo'lib, u genetik dalillar bilan bog'liq. Shuning uchun shnur identifikatsiya qilish uchun ideal bo'ladi, deb faraz Koprinus komatasi guruh o'z jinsiga joylashtirilgan.

Bu bizni boshlagan joyga qaytaradi. Esda tutingki, tasniflash va identifikatsiya qilish - bu ikki xil narsa. Tasniflash turli xil dalillarni (turli xil usullardan foydalangan holda) birlashtirishi kerak bo'lsa-da, identifikatsiya qilish uchun biz "Mening oldimdagi namunaning nomi nima?" Degan savolga javob berishni osonlashtiradigan xususiyatlardan foydalanamiz.


Zamburug'lar bilan tanishtirish

Qirollik qo'ziqorinlari ekologik va iqtisodiy rollari jihatidan eng muhim organizmlarni o'z ichiga oladi. O'lik organik moddalarni parchalash orqali ular ekotizimlar orqali ozuqa moddalarining aylanishini davom ettiradilar. Bundan tashqari, ko'pchilik qon tomir o'simliklar simbiotik zamburug'larsiz o'sishi mumkin emas, yoki mikorizalar, ular ildizlarida yashaydilar va zarur oziq moddalar bilan ta'minlaydilar. Boshqa zamburug'lar ko'plab dori-darmonlarni (masalan, penitsillin va boshqa antibiotiklar), qo'ziqorin, truffle va morel kabi oziq-ovqatlarni, non, shampan va pivodagi pufakchalarni ta'minlaydi.

Qo'ziqorinlar o'simlik va hayvonlarning bir qator kasalliklarini ham keltirib chiqaradi: odamlarda qo'ziqorin, oyoq oyog'i va yana bir qancha jiddiy kasalliklar qo'ziqorinlardan kelib chiqadi. Qo'ziqorinlar kimyoviy va genetik jihatdan hayvonlarga boshqa organizmlarga qaraganda ko'proq o'xshash bo'lgani uchun, bu qo'ziqorin kasalliklarini davolashni juda qiyinlashtiradi. Qo'ziqorinlar keltirib chiqaradigan o'simlik kasalliklari orasida zang, dum va barg, ildiz va poyaning chirishi bor va ular ekinlarga katta zarar etkazishi mumkin. Biroq, bir qator zamburug'lar, xususan, xamirturushlar genetika va molekulyar biologiya muammolarini o'rganish uchun muhim "model organizmlar" dir.

Qo'ziqorinlar haqida ko'proq ma'lumot olish uchun quyidagi tugmalarni bosing.

Qo'ziqorin haqida ko'proq ma'lumot olish uchun:
Michigan universitetidagi "Qo'ziqorinlar haqida qiziqarli faktlar" sahifasini sinab ko'ring yoki ko'plab chiroyli fotosuratlar va havolalarga ega bo'lgan Mykoweb qo'ziqorin muzeyiga tashrif buyuring. Ba'zi biologik tayyorgarlikka ega bo'lganlar uchun Jozef Spatafora tomonidan o'qitiladigan "Kirish mikologiyasi" kursining ajoyib bosh sahifasini sinab ko'ring.

Bizda qo'ziqorinlar bo'yicha katta ko'rgazma yo'q. Biz buni qilmagunimizcha, Viskonsin-La Kross universiteti orqali Tom Volk tomonidan taklif qilingan zamburug'lar tasvirlarini sinab ko'rishingizni tavsiya qilamiz. WWW Virtual kutubxonasi xamirturush sahifasi xamirturushlar haqidagi ma'lumot manbalariga, xususan, genetika va molekulyar biologiyaga oid manbalarga havolalar beradi.

Shuningdek, biz qo'shimcha ma'lumot olish uchun onlayn mikologik va lixenologik to'plamlar kataloglari ro'yxatini olib boramiz.


Bepul javob

Tarixiy jihatdan, hunarmand nonlari yovvoyi xamirturushlarni havodan olish yo'li bilan ishlab chiqarilgan. Zamonaviy xamirturush shtammlarini ishlab chiqishdan oldin, hunarmandchilik nonlarini ishlab chiqarish uzoq va mashaqqatli edi, chunki xamirning ko'p partiyalari tashlab yuborildi. Bu haqiqatni tushuntirib bera olasizmi?

Xamir ko'pincha havoda suzuvchi toksik sporalar bilan ifloslangan. Nonni doimiy ravishda ishlab chiqarish uchun non xamirturushining ishonchli shtammlarini tozalash Lui Pasterning yutuqlaridan biri edi.


Binom nomenklaturasi

Butun dunyoda bir xilda qo'llaniladigan nomlash madaniyati (turli organizmlarning) binom nomenklaturasi deb nomlanadi.

Binom nomenklaturasi asosan ikkita so'zdan iborat - birinchi so'z bosh harf bilan boshlanib, jins (genus) deb nomlansa, ikkinchi so'z kichik harf bilan boshlanib, organizm turini belgilaydi.

Binom nomenklaturasi kursiv bilan yozilishi va ilmiy nom sifatida ham tanilgan bo'lishi kerak.

Masalan, insonning binomial nomenklaturasi - Homo sapiens yo'lbars - Pantera tigrasi, va boshqalar.


Mikrofungiyalar haqida eslatma

Ushbu veb-saytga kirish makrofungus va mikrofungus o'rtasidagi farqni tushuntirdi. Makrofungular - bu qo'ziqorin, pufakchalar, poliporalar va boshqalar kabi oson ko'rinadigan meva tanalarini ishlab chiqaradigan mikroorganizmlar, mog'or, o'simlik zanglari, chiriyotgan, chiriyotgan va boshqalar.

Ushbu veb-sayt makrofunguslarga bag'ishlangan bo'lib, mikrozamburug'lar haqida faqat vaqti-vaqti bilan eslatib o'tiladi. Bu mikroorganizmlar kam bo'lgani uchun emas. Aslida, makrofunguslardan ko'ra ko'proq mikrofungular mavjud. Bu mikrofungular ahamiyatsiz bo'lgani uchun ham emas. Aksincha, ular ham ekologik, ham iqtisodiy nuqtai nazardan juda muhim.

Ushbu ekologiya bo'limida keltirilgan deyarli barcha misollar makrofungaldir. Biroq, makrofungal xatti -harakatlar, turmush tarzi va o'zaro ta'sirlarning deyarli har qanday misolida siz bir xil xatti -harakatlar, turmush tarzi va o'zaro ta'sirlarning mikrofungal misollarini topishingiz mumkin.

Makrofungilarning cheklanishi shunchaki, chunki ular Avstraliya milliy botanika bog'larida zamburug'lar bilan shug'ullanadi. Ushbu cheklov qo'ziqorin dunyosining asosiy qismini istisno qilsa-da, makrofunglar hali ham juda xilma-xil guruh bo'lib, o'rganish uchun juda katta imkoniyatlarni beradi.

Nihoyat, makro va mikro zamburug'lar o'zaro ta'sir qiladi - bu mog'orlangan qo'ziqorin turidagi fotosuratda ko'rsatilganidek. Kortinarius !


Styuart o'zining sa'y-harakatlari tufayli g'ayrioddiy narsaga erishdi: bu ko'p sonli va noyob organizmlar guruhining ko'p jihatlarini qamrab olgan zamburug'lar haqida yaxshi tasvirlangan kirish, shu bilan birga ma'lumotlarni turli sinflardagi bolalar uchun ochiq qilish. Grafikalarning ko'pchiligi juda chiroyli va ular o'z navbatida turli xil so'z jumboqlari bilan takomillashtirilgan. Ko'p joylarda u o'qituvchilar uchun yordamchi vositalarni ham o'rnatgan va u o'quvchilarni bosqichma -bosqich olib boradi, shunda ular o'zlari xohlagan darajaga o'zlashtira oladilar. O'qituvchilar ham, bolalar ham ko'plab yangi va qiziqarli narsalarni o'rganadilar va bu yanada hayajonli, chunki qo'ziqorinlar, ularning ulkan ahamiyati va hamma joyda bo'lishiga qaramay, odatda maktab o'quv dasturida deyarli e'tiborga olinmaydi. Umid qilamanki, ushbu taqdimotning versiyalari Albertada yashash baxtiga muyassar bo'lganlarga qo'shimcha ravishda uzoq va keng bolalar uchun ham taqdim etilishi mumkin.

Bu elektron kitob faqat ta'lim maqsadlarida foydalanish uchun mo'ljallangan. Agar nusxa ko'chirilsa, muallifga hurmat ko'rsatishingizni so'raymiz. Material maktab guruhlari, fan klublari, mahalliy tabiat guruhlari va har qanday mutaxassis bo'lmagan auditoriyaga zamburug'lar haqida dars beradigan har bir kishi uchun foydali bo'ladi. Elektron kitobni tarqatishni rag'batlantirish uchun, iltimos, quyidagi risolani chop eting va o'z jamoangiz bilan baham ko'ring.

Chapdagi rasm: Coprinus cinereus, Jeyson Stajichdan, http://farm3.static.flickr.com/2269/1904556823_950594c954.jpg. O'rtadagi rasm: Ustilago maydis. O'ng rasm: Schizophyllum kommunasi, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Spaltbl%C3%A4ttlinge.jpg saytidan.

Biz har kuni qo'ziqorinlar bilan tez -tez uchrashamiz, ularning ba'zilari odam uchun patogen, boshqalari esa yo'q. Mexanizmlar tomonidan tuproq buzilgan va shamolga sochilgan qurilish maydonchalari bo'ylab yurish orqali bizga ta'sir qilishimiz mumkin, biz piyoda yurish, yugurish, ov qilish yoki baliq ovlash paytida doimo ta'sir qilamiz. Dam olish paytida biz o'zimizga shikast etkazganimizda, masalan, ponksiyon yarasi, ishqalanish, kuyish yoki hatto ko'p miqdordagi zararli sporalarni nafas olish orqali. Yaxshiyamki, ko'pchiligimiz qo'ziqorin infektsiyasidan himoya qiladigan immunitet tizimiga egamiz, lekin ba'zi odamlar bunday jarohatlardan qo'ziqorin kasalliklariga chalinadi.

Xo'sh, qanday qo'ziqorinlar inson patogenlari bo'lishi mumkin? Ehtimol, barcha qo'ziqorinlar mumkin potentsial Sizning immunitetingiz buzilgan bo'lsa, bu jihatdan zararli bo'lishi mumkin. Yaxshiyamki, ko'pchiligimiz uchun bu muammo emas va jiddiy qo'ziqorin kasalligiga chalinish ehtimoli bakterial yoki virusli kasalliklarga nisbatan past. Biroq, so'nggi yillarda, bu immunitet tizimi zaif odamlar, masalan, OITS, organ transplantatsiyasi, qandli diabet va saratonning turli shakllarini davolash bilan kasallangan odamlar sonining ko'payishi bilan bog'liq muammoga aylandi.

Ba'zi qo'ziqorinli odam patogenlari

Qo'ziqorin kasalliklarini muhokama qilishda ularni tasniflashning eng qulay usuli ularni sodir bo'lgan infektsiya turiga ko'ra tasniflashdir: 1. Yuzaki infektsiyalar, teri yoki uning qo'shimchalariga (tirnoq, tuklar va sochlar) hujum qiladigan qo'ziqorinlar sabab bo'ladi. Bu infektsiyaning ba'zi misollari orasida chuvalchanglar, qichishish va sportchining oyog'i bor. Bu qo'ziqorinlar deb nomlanadi dermatofitlar. 2. Tizimli infektsiyalarTo'qimalarda paydo bo'ladigan, hayotiy organlar va/yoki asab tizimini o'z ichiga olgan va o'limga olib keladigan, ammo surunkali bo'lishi mumkin bo'lgan kasalliklar. Tanaga kirish odatda spora yoki ochiq yaralarni inhalatsiyalash yo'li bilan amalga oshiriladi. Keyin qon aylanishi yoki nafas olish tizimi qo'ziqorinni butun vujudga uzatishi mumkin va ichki organning qo'shimcha infektsiyasi paydo bo'lishi mumkin. Bu qo'ziqorinlar, odatda, tuproqda o'sadigan saprotrof zamburug'lardir. Uchinchisi, O'rta infektsiya, is sometimes also recognize and is intermediate between the two just discussed. The infection will occur below the skin, but will remain localized

Superficial Infections

The superficial mycoses are the most well known since they can be readily observed. They commonly occur on the hair, nails and skin of infected individuals. They have been recorded in various compilations of medical literature for well over a thousand years as ring worm, athlete's foot, jock itch and piedra. For each type of infection, there can also be a variety of species that may be causing the disease. Thus, we will only have a general discussion on this group of diseases.

Ringworm and Related Dermatophytes

Ringworm usually occurs on the exposed parts of the body, forming circular growths that may appear darker or lighter than the normal skin color, with symptoms that include skin lesion, rash and itching of the infected area. Ringworm infections are common where conditions are unsanitary and crowded with people and has been known since early historical time. There are indications that ringworm was more prevalent in the recent past than now because of improvements in sanitary conditions and health habits. The Greeks called it Herpes (=circular or ring form) and the Romans associated the disease with the larval stage of Tinea, the genus for clothes moth. The two names were eventually combined to "ringworm". Although the actual cause of ringworm was not known until the early 1800s, the practice of segregating infected individuals to prevent spread of the disease indicated that there was knowledge that this disease was contagious and prevalent, and could be passed from person to person was known prior to the cause of infection.

It was Gruby that isolated and described one of the ringworm fungi, Trichophyton, meaning "thread plant", and through inoculation on healthy parts of the scalp, was able to reproduce the disease. He also carried out the same experiment with several other human pathogenic fungi and inoculated himself with the pathogen, as well as others. Although this was a great accomplishment, Gruby also had a great deal of luck since, at the time, isolation of specific fungi was not common practice, and this was also 30 years prior to the development of techniques to grow fungi and bacteria in pure culture.

According to Ainsworth, more than 350 species of dermatophytes have been proposed and given approximately 1,000 names, which has caused some confusion in medical mycology. The proliferation in names have come about because different researchers have worked with the same species of a pathogen, in a different place and time, and each were familiar with that particular isolate of that particular species of fungus and probably not too familiar with that isolate. They grew it in culture briefly and published on it. Thus, each newly isolated dermatophytic fungus was given a name, sometimes according to the symptoms with which it was associated or according to the part of the body affected, i.e. top of the head, neck, face, hand, arm, leg and foot, or even the geographical region, or sometimes just for the sake of publication (due to the competitiveness of medical schools) . This led to a great deal of confusion in the understanding of mycoses.

Although the first species were described in the 1840s, they were little studied until the 1940s, when the United States military personnel, while fighting in the South Pacific, during WWII, contracted ringworm and other fungi in the humid tropics (an example of advancement of knowledge due to driven research). This led to an intensive study, by the government of such fungi with many species being reduced to synonyms. For example, 172 species were reduced to Candida albicans.

Epidemiology of Ringworm

  1. Zoophilic or "animal loving." Species infect animals primarily, e.g. cats, dogs, horses, cows, poultry, but can readily be transmitted to people. This is probably the most common source of ringworm in people, and is usually caused by Microsporum canis, a species usually found on cats and dogs. Animals that are carriers of ringworm do not necessarily show outward signs of the disease. Symptomless animals and probably people as well are carriers of these diseases. The infections are spread mainly by spores, but mycelial fragment in skin and hair can presumably also occur. Spores are very long lived and can remain alive for years in blankets, in clothing, bedding, combs and other grooming tools.
  2. Anthropophilic or "man loving." Species infect people and cannot be transferred to animals.
  3. Geophilic or "earth loving." Species occur naturally in soil, presumably as a saprobe, but is capable of infecting animals and people. Another words these are facultative parasites!

There must be great differences among individuals in susceptibility to infection of these ringworm fungi as well as great differences in susceptibility of an individuals at different times. There are many questions that remain unanswered concerning this species causing the various forms of ringworm.

Ringworm infections are conveniently divided into categories, based on the part of the body that was infected:

  • Tinea capitis: Ringworm of the scalp, eyebrow and lashes.
  • Tinea corporis: Ringworm of the body.
  • Tinea cruris: Ringworm of the groin, perineum and perianal region. Infections are commonly referred to as "qichishish& quot.
  • Tinea unguium: Ringworm of the nail.
  • Tinea barbae: Ringworm of the beard.
  • Tinea pedis: Ringworm of the feet. Infections are commonly referred to as athlete's foot.
  • Tinea manuum: Ringworm of the hand.
Left Image: Example of Tinea capitis. Middle Image: Example of Tinea corporis. Right Image: Example of Tinea pedis (Athlete's Foot). All images courtesy of Dr. Glenn Bulmer, from http://www.medicalmycology.net.

Note that the various "Tinea" names given to the various forms of ringworms do not constitute species names. A summary of the above ringworm diseases, based on anatomical locations can be found on the Medline Plus Health Information. There is also discussion on treatment for the various types of ringworms that have been omitted on this web page. Warning, this site has very explicit graphics of these diseases!

Presumably infection is spread mainly by air-borne spores which is why veterinarians do not want ring-worm infected animals to remain in their clinics or hospitals. If this is the case, all of us at one time must be exposed to infections by various ringworm fungi. Why is it then that few of us become infected? Why is infection usually localized, e.g. ringworm of the scalp only occurs in qism while most areas are not affected? Surely, there are enough spores produced that the entire scalp will be infected. Sometimes one person in a family, or animal in a herd, will get ringworm and it will not spread to others, whereas other times it is highly contagious. There is a great deal to be learned about ringworm.

An interesting disease that is not one of the ringworms is piedra. This is a disease of the hair where mycelium grows along the shaft of the hair and often fuses clumps of hair together. Usually occurs in unsanitary conditions, in tropical countries. To treat piedra the infected hair is cut or shaved and a topical azole cream, salycylic acid or 2% formaldehyde is applied to the affected area.

Systemic or Deep-Seated Mycoses

There are a dozen or more species of fungi causing various systemic or deep-seated mycoses in man and animals. We will discuss several of the more prevalent species or because of some interesting aspect of the fungus or disease.

Coccidioides immit, the cause of Coccidioidomycosis (Valley Fever)

This species is endemic to the southwest, in the United States (California, eastward through Arizona, New Mexico, and western half of Texas), Northern Mexico and some areas of Central and South America. In the United States, it is most commonly recorded from Kern County, in the San Joaquin Valley of California. Infection may occur following travel to one of the endemic areas. The first case of coccidioidomycosis was described in Argentina shortly before 1890 the patient suffered for seven years before finally dying and by 1915, there were 40 known cases of this disease, which was thought to be a rare and universally fatal. However, by this time it was already known that there was a disease called Valley Fever, which was not associated, at that time, with C. immitis. It would not be until Dickson (1937) that it was realized that Valley Fever was just a milder form of coccidioidomycosis. Dickson & Gifford (1938) carrying out coccidioidin teri testi of long time residents of Kern County demonstrated that 50-70% have, at some time been infected by this fungus. The test is like a tuberculosis (TB) test where substances called antigens that are associated with the disease are injected just below the skin, of your forearm, and the results read 24 to 48 hours later. If an infection of C. immitis has occurred, antibodies will be produced by the body that will react with the antigen that has been injected, causing a large red swelling in the area of the injection.

Coccidioides immit is contracted by inhalation of spores and primarily causes a respiratory disease in animals and people, but from the lungs it may spread throughout the body by way of the bloodstream and cause pathologic changes - skin lesions of one sort or another - in just about all tissues in all parts of the body. In the usual course of events, infection results in a more or less acute but benign and self-limiting respiratory disease, but once the patient recovers from this, they are likely to be permanently immune from further infection. Fiese (1958), an authority on this disease, says that about 60% of those infected have few or no symptoms, and 40% have symptoms of varying degrees of severity chills, fever, chest pains, coughing, lassitude - symptoms typical of a dozen other infections as well. These symptoms develop ten to fourteen days after infection, and may persist for some time, but eventually, in most cases, the immunological processes of the body take over and rids it of infection, although lesions and scars in the lungs may remain. In a relatively few cases (1 in 500) the fungus is disseminated from the lungs to other parts of the body, and this secondary stage may result in severe lesions in the skin, bones, and internal organs and the victim will have massive external and internal lesions and abscesses. If this stage is reached, it is unlikely that the victim will recover, death will occur within weeks or after a long and lingering illness. Sometime the disease proceeds to a fairly advanced stage and then remains static for years, and it may regress and later reappear. Amphotericin B is the drug of choice to treat this disease.

Left Image: Positive reaction to coccidioidin skin test. Middle Image: Skin lesions from C. immitis infection, from http://drugster.info/img/ail/1899_1911_2.jpg. Right Image: Skin lesion from C. immitis infection on face, courtesy of Glenn Bulmer.

Histoplasma capsulatum and Histoplasmosis

Histoplasmosis occurs in people and dogs, rarely has it occurred in other domestic or wild animals. Infection occurs through inhalation of spores from this fungus. The history of this disease is similar to that of coccidiomycosis. The first three cases of histoplasmosis was described in the Panama Canal Zone in 1905 and 1906. The patients died of massive infections, and in postmortem examination of diseased tissues, the disease was thought to have been caused by a protozoan (Darling, 1906). Thus, the name H. capsulatum, which refers to what was believed to be an encapsulated plasmodium found during the autopsy. The first case occurring in the United States was recorded in 1926 and by 1934 only six cases had been described in Panama and the United States, all postmortem.

Until 1940, Histoplasmosis was thought to be a rare and almost invariably fatal disease, and little attention was paid to it. However, in 1940, many men who were given chest x-rays as part of their physical examination to determine their fitness for military service, were found to have calcified pulmonary lesions indicative of healed-over infections, which is normally a positive test for tuberculosis. The incidence of these lesions were especially high in men from the Mississippi and Ohio River valleys few of these men tested positive for tuberculin test and so it was unlikely that these lesions were due to tuberculosis infections. In 1945, Histoplasmin skin test revealed that a large number of people in some areas of the United States tested positive for Histoplasmosis, but appeared to be perfectly healthy at some time in the past they had been infected with Histoplasma capsulatum (Christie & Peterson, 1945). It was estimated that as many as 20% of the population of the United States are or have been infected by this fungus. The great majority of these either have no symptoms at all or suffer only miscellaneous aches and pains, with a light cough, perhaps some dysentery, very much like symptoms of coccidioidomycosis, flu, and various bacterial infections. The symptoms soon disappear and the individual is then highly resistant or immune from further infection by this fungus.

However, again, in a small percentage of cases the fungus spreads, by way of the blood stream, from the source of the original infection in the lungs throughout the body, and this may result in massive infection that is usually rapid and fatal. Thus, the disease is very widespread, but until 1940, it was thought to be a rare, but fatal disease which was usually not diagnosed until an autopsy was carried out and may not have been recognized even then. More cases probably occurred, but because few pathologists were trained to recognize fungal diseases. Medical mycology was still a little studied area at this time. As was the case in coccidioidomycosis, once the disease has been disseminated from the lungs to the rest of the body, it is likely to be fatal and nothing can be done.

Although there is a high incidence of this disease, it is not communicated from animal to animal or person to person or even animal to people. It seems likely that the infection source is from the soil where it has been demonstrated to exist as a saprobe. However, it apparently does not sporulate in soil, but rather only in droppings of birds and bats. The fungus grows there and presumably sporulates on the droppings. This is the reason that public parks throughout the country do not allow people using the park to feed the birds. Large number of birds feeding in a given area, where there are often a lot of people, would present an environment where there is greater probability that someone may catch this disease.

Although this disease is little known, several years ago, on May 25, 1997, Bob Dylan was hospitalized, with histoplasmosis, although his life was threatened, he apparently was never in danger of dying of this disease. However, the disease became far better known after he contracted it. I was still able to find a brief mention of this news story in the archives of the Los Angeles Times. If you wish to read this article, click here.

Left Image: Histoplasmosis infection of gum, from http://www.doctoribolit.ru/images/Histoplasmosis/Histoplasmosis04.gif. Right Image: Skin lesion of upper lip due to histoplasmosis infection, from Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Public Health Image Library #6840.

Blastomits and Blastomycosis

There are two species of this genus, Blastomyces dermatitidis va B. brasiliensis that occur in North America and South America, respectively. These species occur naturally in soil, especially soil in animal habitats. It is apparently widespread in Kentucky and Arkansas where infection in dogs is common. Infection is rare in other animals, but have been recorded in cats, one horse and one sea lion.

Infection apparently comes from spores or mycelium in the soil and any part of the body may be invaded. Infections usually are first detected as skin lesions the lesions may remain localized or may gradually enlarge. In some case the fungus can spread throughout the whole body, resulting in extensive ulceration. Males are infected more frequently than female - in some studies the ratio is 15:1. There is no effective treatment.

Intermediate Infections

These are diseases that are intermediate between the first two categories. These fungal infections may extend to a considerable depth within the tissue, but unlike the systemic diseases will not be distributed to the rest of the body. One of the most common intermediate infection is Candida albicans.

Candida albicans and Candidiasis

Candida albicans is a dimorphic fungus. That is, it grows as both mycelium and yeasts. This is one reason why there were so many names given to this fungus. This fungus normally occurs in the mouth, digestive tract, and vagina of perfectly healthy people, but under some circumstances, and for reasons unknown, it may cause severe and even fatal infections, with lesions and eruptions of the skin, nails, mouth, bronchial tubes and lungs. There are suggestions that there are special strains of this species that are pathogenic. This is suggested by the fact that this disease can be contagious and epidemics have occurred. Predisposition may also play a role in infection. Oral infections known as thrush is relatively common. Infections can occur on various parts of the body.

Candidiasis infections on various parts of body: Left Image: On tongue, commonly referred to as Thrush. Middle Image: On neck. Right Image: Is a case where it is fatal. Lack of T-Cells allowed infection to occur on many parts of body. Images courtesy of Glenn Bulmer, from http://www.medicalmycology.net.

Disease is mostly tropical to subtropical, but was first reported from Boston in 1915 and may be caused by several species of fungi. Species causing this disease are mostly soil inhabiting or on decaying vegetation and typically enter the foot or lower part of the leg through wounds from walking bare-footed. Early treatment involves excision of infected area or cryosurgery. Chemical treatments vary in their success of controlling this disease.

Left Image: Fonsecae pedrosoi infection of left leg. Right Image: Same leg after daily treatment with Itraconazole. Images courtesy of Glenn Bulmer, from http://www.medicalmycology.net.

Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillosis

Aspergillus fumigatus is a species complex rather than a single species. It is actually composed of ten species. These species are commonly found in decaying vegetation, especially when the latter is undergoing microbiological heating, because this complex is thermophilic, adapted to growing at high temperatures 50 - 55 C (120 -130 F).

Aspergillus fumigatus sometimes parasitizes animals, especially birds, infecting mainly lungs and causing heavy mortality - up to 50% in young turkeys and up to 90% in young chicks. Heavy losses have also been reported in herring gulls, ostriches and diving ducks in the wild and in penguins in zoos. The fungus can also invade the embryos of eggs in incubators, and probably does the same in eggs in nest in the wild. It also invade the uterus of pregnant cattle and grows through the placenta into the fetus, which then dies and is aborted. It has been estimated that 64% of bovine abortion investigated were due to infection of A. fumigatus.

In people, the disease can lead to a chronic lung infection which is apparently very contagious. The fungus is thought to cause death, but that is not certain. In patients that have died and A. fumigatus has been isolated, many have also had underlying disease that possibly lowered their resistance to the fungus. However, it is also possible that the fungus had lowered their resistance to the other infective agents. It is difficult to know what came first.

Human pathogenic then can indeed be very serious and almost any fungus can potentially cause an infection. Although these diseases are not common, there is now a higher incidence of fungal diseases. This is due to the increased number of transplants that are being carried out and to the rise in the number of people afflicted with AIDs. In those individuals requiring transplants in order to be able to continue with a normal life, they must take powerful drugs that suppress the immune system so that the transplanted organ will not be rejected by their body, and of course the immune system of individuals afflicted with AIDs have been comprised by the nature of the disease. With an immune system that has been compromised, there has been a rise in the number of people that have succumbed to fungal diseases.

Unlike bacterial diseases, fungal diseases are more difficult to treat. Often topical and oral treatments are long term and may only be partially successful in controlling the fungus, if they work at all. Many infections will be chronic and if you are fortunate enough to rid the infection from your body, there is always the possibility of recurrence of the disease. Why the difficulty in treating fungal diseases? Many serious bacterial diseases have been successfully treated and usually without side affects from the drugs used. This usually is not the case with treatment of fungal diseases. The reason for this is that fungi, like people, are eukaryotes, making the two types of cells similar, at least more similar than to bacterial cells. There is enough similarity that when attempts are made to rid your body of a fungal infection, with chemicals, it is difficult to find a treatment that can remove the fungus without doing significant damage to your own cells.

Christie, A. & Peterson J. C. 1945. Pulmonary calcification in negative reactors to tuberculin. Am J Public Health. 35:1131.

Darling, S.T. 1906. A protozoan general infection producing pseudo tubercles in the lungs and focal necrosis in the liver, spleen and lymph nodes. JAMA 46,1283-1285

Dickson, E. C. 1937. "Valley fever" of the San Joaquin Vallen and fungus Coccidioides. California West. Med., 47: 151-155.

Dickson, E. C., & Gifford, M. A. 1938. Coccidioides infection (Coccidioidomycosis): the primary type of infection. Ark. Stajyor. Med., 62: 853-871.

Edwards, L. B., & Palmer, C. 1957. Prevalence of sensitivity to coccidioidin, with special reference to specific and non-specific reactions to coccidioidin and histoplasmin. Dis. Ko'krak. 31: 35-60.

Fiese, M. J. 1958, Coccidioidomycosis. Charles C. Thomas, Springfield, IL, 253 p.

Hawksworth, D. L. 1992. Fungi: A neglected component of biodiversity crucial to ecosystem function and maintenance. Canadian Biodiversity 1: 4-10.

Hudler, G. W. 1998. Magical Mushrooms, Mischievous Molds. Princeton University Press. Princeton, New Jersey, 248 p.

Lacaz, C. da S., E.M. Heins-Vaccari, N. Takahashi de Melo, and G.L. Hernandez-Arriagada. 1996. Basidiomycosis: a review of the literature. Rev. Inst. Med. Tropik. S. Paulo, 38(5): 379-390.

Speller, D.C.E. and A. G. MacIver. 1970. Endocarditis caused by a Coprinus species: A fungus of the toadstool group. J. Med. Mikrobiol. 4:370-374

Kern, M.E. and F.A. Uecker. 1986. Maxillary Sinus Infection Caused by the Homobasidiomycetous Fungus Schizophyllum commune. Journal of Clinical Microbiology. 23: 1001-1005.

Rippon, J. W. 1988. Medical Mycology: The Pathogenic Fungi and the Pathogenic Actinomycetes. W. B. Saunders Company Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, Inc. Philadelphia, PA, 797 p.

There are a number of web sites that have concise descriptions of diseases with pictures:

National Center for Mycology: An excellent page for superficial infections, i.e., dermatophytes.

Doctor Fungus: Web site has an excellent medical mycology section, but also has general information about fungi, an image bank, and "sick building syndrome" (a topic we will cover later in the semester).

Anthropophilic: Literarily "man loving." Species infect people and cannot be transferred to animals.

Aspergillosis : Disease caused by Aspergillus fumigatus parasitizes animals, especially birds, infecting mainly lungs, through inhalation of spores, and causing heavy mortality

Blastomikoz : Infection apparently comes from spores or mycelium of Blastomyces dermatitidis va B. brasiliensis, in the soil and any part of the body may become infected through access of wound on body. Infection form lesion that may stay localized, but may spread throughout body forming extensive ulceration.

Candidiasis: Fungal disease caused by Candida albicans. This fungus is found among the normal flora of the mouth, digestive tract, and vagina of perfectly healthy people, but under some circumstances, and for reasons unknown, it may cause severe and even fatal infections, with lesions and eruptions of the skin, nails, mouth, bronchial tubes and lungs.

Chromoblastomycosis: Disease caused by several species of fungi. Species of fungi normally in soil or decaying plant material, and enters the body, usually foot or lower leg, through a break in the skin. Fungus causes a chronic infection in which there are raised crusted lesions affecting the skin and subcutaneous tissue.

Coccidioidomycosis : Systemic mycosis, also known as Valley Fever. Contracted through inhalation of spores of Coccidioides immitis, from soil, causing respiratory problems in animals. However, may spread throughout the body by way of the bloodstream and cause pathologic changes - lesions of one sort or another - in just about all tissues in all parts of the body, and may be fatal in such cases.

Dermatophyte: Fungus that attacks the skin.

Histoplasmosis : Systemic mycosis, usually occurring in people and dogs. Contracted through inhalation of spores of Histoplasma capsulatum, that occur in droppings of birds, and bats as well as other rodents. May only cause respiratory if remaining localized, but if infection spreads through blood stream, it may be fatal.

Intermediate infections: Fungal infections occurring below the skin, but remaining localized.

Geophilic: Literarily "earth loving." Species that occur naturally in soil, presumably as a saprobe, but is capable of infecting animals and people.

Medical Mycology: The study of Fungi as animal and human pathogens.

Mycoses: Diseases of warm blooded animals caused by fungi.

Opportunistic Fungi: These are Fungi that normally do not cause diseases, but if opportunity arises, e.g. compromise immune system or open wound entry, they can cause an infection and often times are fatal. Also referred to as facultative parasites.

Pleomorphism: Ability of fungi to take on different forms.

Ringworm: Superficial disease of skin caused by various species of fungi.

Superficial infections : Fungal infections that attack the skin or appendages (nails and hair).

Systemic infections : Fungal infections that occur deep within the tissues, involving vital organs and/or the nervous system, and which may be fatal, but may also be chronic.

Tinea: Term referring to various roundworm diseases. Used as part of a binomial, but not a species name, to refer to infections to various parts of the body, e.g., Tinea barbae = ringworm of beard, Tinea pedis = ringworm of feet.

Veterinary Mycology: The study of fungi as animal pathogens, such as those of pets and farm animals.

Zoophilic : Literarily animal loving. Said of fungal dermatophytes that infect animals. Diseases can be transmitted from animals to people.


Videoni tomosha qiling: Qoziqorin. Veshenka Buxoroda. грибы вешенка 1 (Iyul 2022).


Izohlar:

  1. Audric

    Sizni xalaqit berayotganim uchun uzr so'rayman, men ham o'z fikrimni bildirmoqchiman.

  2. Dugore

    Men sizga ushbu mavzu bo'yicha juda ko'p ma'lumotga ega bo'lgan mashhur saytga tashrif buyurishni taklif qilaman.

  3. Cenon

    Certainly. Gaplaringa qo'shilaman.



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