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Turli xil gilam qo'ng'iz lichinkalari

Turli xil gilam qo'ng'iz lichinkalari



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Men o'z devorlarimdagi gilam qo'ng'izining lichinkalari 99% ishonchim komil bo'lgan narsalarni topishda davom etaman. Ammo men atrofga qarasam va yaxshilab qidirsam, (y) kattalar qo'ng'izining alomatlarini topa olmayman. Bu nima uchun/qanday ro'y bermoqda va agar bu gilam qo'ng'izining lichinkalari bo'lmasa, unda bu nima?


Gilam qo'ng'izlari haqida tez-tez so'raladigan savollar

Savol: Nega ularni gilam qo'ng'izlari deb atashadi?
Javob: Nomidan ko'rinib turibdiki, ular sintetik bo'lmagan gilam, mo'yna, kiyim, kostyum, bluzka, kozok va boshqalarga zarar etkazishi mumkin.

Savol: Gilam qo'ng'izlari yana nima bilan oziqlanadi?
Javob: Bu zararkunandalar tuzilmalarda uchraydigan turli xil moddalar bilan oziqlanadi. Bularga odam va hayvon sochlari, jun, mo'ynalar, terilar, tuklar va o'lik hasharotlar kiradi.

Savol: Qanday qilib ular gilam qo'ng'izlari ekanligini aniqlay olamanmi?
Javob: Gilam qo'ng'izlarining lichinkalari 1/8 dyuym uzunlikda va tor bo'lib, ko'pincha sabzi shaklida tasvirlangan. Bir necha turdagi gilam qo'ng'izlari, qora gilam qo'ng'izlari, turli xil gilam qo'ng'izlari va mebel gilam qo'ng'izlari mavjud.

Savol: Ular qayerda uyalashadi?
Javob: Siz ularni qush, ari, sichqon, kalamush yoki sincap uyasi bo'lgan devor bo'shliqlarida topishingiz mumkin.

Savol: Ularni mening uyimda qayerdan topish mumkin?
Javob: Ularni uyingizning istalgan yoki barcha xonalarida topish mumkin.

Savol: Ular mening uyim yoki ofisimga qanday kirishadi?
Javob: Bahorda ular tashqarida gulchang bilan oziqlanadilar va ko'pincha ular uy ichida uchib, tuxum qo'yadi.

Savol: Ular tishlaydilarmi?
Javob: Yo'q. Lekin lichinka bosqichidagi tuklar yoki tuklar ba'zi odamlarda tirnash xususiyati keltirib chiqaradi.

Savol: Ularni nazorat qilish qiyinmi? Men buni o'zim qila olamanmi?
Javob: Mumkin bo'lishi mumkin. Biroq, Arrow uyni gilam qo'ng'izlari uchun davolaganda, uyni yaxshilab davolash uchun ikki xizmatchi 1-2 kun talab qilishi mumkin va biz bir necha marta qaytishimiz kerak bo'ladi.

Savol: Arrow gilam qo'ng'izlarini davolash dasturlarini taklif qiladimi?
Javob: Albatta! Arrow - zararkunandalarga qarshi to'liq xizmat ko'rsatadigan kompaniya. Shunchaki bizga qo'ng'iroq qiling.


Gilam qo'ng'izlarining hayot aylanishi

Gilam qo'ng'izlarining barcha turlari to'liq metamorfozga uchraydi, tuxum, lichinka va qo'g'irchoq bosqichidan o'tib, kattalarga aylanadi. Ko'pchilik gilam qo'ng'izlari har yili to'rt avlodgacha rivojlanadi, qora gilam qo'ng'izlari esa faqat bittasini rivojlantiradi. Gilam qo'ng'izining hayot aylanishi ikki oydan bir necha yilgacha davom etadi. Lichinkalar oziq-ovqat manbalari gilam qo'ng'izining o'sish siklining davomiyligini aniqlashda muhim rol o'ynaydi.

Tuxum va lichinkalar
Gilam qo'ng'izining hayot aylanishi katta yoshli urg'ochi tuxum qo'ygandan keyin boshlanadi. Gilam qo'ng'izlari qushlar, sichqonlar va boshqa hasharotlarning uyalarini yuqtirishi mumkin bo'lsa -da, uy ichida tuxum qo'yishi mumkin. Yorug'lik manbalari yaqinida juftlashgandan so'ng, urg'ochilar bir vaqtning o'zida 100 dan ortiq tuxum qo'yishi mumkin, ular 7-35 kun ichida lichinkalarga aylanadi. Lichinkalar oziq-ovqatsiz bir necha hafta yashashi mumkin.

Qo'g'irchoqlar va kattalar
Gilam qo'ng'izining qo'g'irchoq fazasining davomiyligi har xil bo'lib, katta yoshli gilam qo'ng'izlari bahor yoki yozda paydo bo'ladi. Gilam qo'ng'izi yoshlari to'qqiz oydan ikki yilgacha kattalarga aylanadi, kattalar esa atigi bir necha hafta tirik qoladi.

Uchrashuvlar va tashvishlar

Uchrashuvlar
Voyaga etganlar qobiliyatli sayohatchilar, shuning uchun gilam qo'ng'izlari xonadan xonaga o'tishi mumkin, bu esa tezda yuqish imkonini beradi. Gilam qo'ng'izining lichinkalari mato, hayvonot mahsulotlari va boshqa shu kabi narsalarni yo'q qiladi. Bu hasharotlar hayot tsikli davomida duch kelishi mumkin bo'lgan joylar saqlanadigan yoki kamdan -kam ishlatiladigan mato va buyumlar:

  • Hayvonlarning oqishi
  • Tuklar
  • Mebel va gilam matolari
  • Mo'ynali kiyimlar
  • Lint
  • Sintetik bo'lmagan kiyim
  • Kemiruvchilar uchun uy qurilishi materiallari

Xavotirlar
Gilam qo'ng'izlarining zararlanishi, odatda, uy egasi matolar shikastlanganini, lichinka va qo'g'irchoq po'stlog'i borligini, yoki lichinkalar va uchayotgan kattalarning harakatini, yorug'lik manbalari yaqinida ko'rganda aniqlanadi. Tuxum va pupa bosqichlari harakatchan yoki faol emas, shuningdek, tuxumlar juda kichik va ba'zan ko'rish juda qiyin. Uy egalari uchun aniq tashvishlar - bu zararlangan narsalarga zarar etkazish va uy ichidagi uchib yuruvchi kattalarning noqulayligi.


Gilam qo'ng'izlari

Gilam qo'ng'izlari, ularning nomidan ko'rinib turibdiki, ba'zida gilamlarni yuqtiradi. Kiyim kuyalariga o'xshab, zararkunandalar jun, mo'yna, namat, ipak, patlar, terilar va teridan tashkil topgan ko'plab boshqa narsalar bilan oziqlanadi. Bunday materiallarda lichinkalar hazm qila oladigan tolali hayvon oqsillari bo'lgan keratin mavjud. Paxta va sintetik matolarga, masalan, poliester va sun'iy mato, jun bilan aralashtirilmasa yoki oziq -ovqat dog'lari yoki tana yog'lari bilan juda ifloslanmagan bo'lsa, kamdan -kam hujum qilinadi. Gilam qo'ng'izlarining infektsiyalari aniqlanmagan holda rivojlanishi mumkin, bu esa himoyasiz narsalarga zarar etkazadi.

Gilam qo'ng'izlari haqida faktlar

Turar -joy binolarida gilam qo'ng'izlari tez -tez uchraydi va ularning shikastlanishi ko'pincha kiyim -kechak kuya sifatida yanglishadi. (Kiyim kuya haqida ko'proq ma'lumot olish uchun qarang Kentukki universiteti Entomologiya Entfact-609.) Kattalar kichik (1/16 dan 1/8 dyuymgacha), oval shaklidagi qo'ng'izlarning rangi qora rangdan oq, jigarrang, sariq va to'q sariq rangdagi turli xil "xolli" naqshlargacha. Voyaga etgan gilam qo'ng'izlari gul gulchanglari bilan oziqlanadi va jun va boshqa matolarga zarar etkazmaydi. Bahor oylarida ular ko'pincha deraza tokchalarida paydo bo'ladi, bu uy ichidagi infektsiya bo'lishi mumkinligini ko'rsatadi. Urg'ochi qo'ng'izlar zaif materiallarga 50-100 ta tuxum qo'yadi. Ba'zi naslchilik joylari aniq bo'lishi mumkin bo'lsa-da (masalan, shkafda saqlanadigan jun gilam), boshqalari nozik bo'lishi mumkin - masalan, taglik taxtalari, havo teshiklari va kanallar bilan bog'liq bo'lgan uy hayvonlari sochlarining to'planishi.

1-rasm: Voyaga etgan gilam qo'ng'izlari mayda bo'lib, ko'pincha dog'li yoki lekeli ko'rinadi.

Bir necha hafta ichida katta yoshli qo'ng'izlar tomonidan qo'yilgan mayda tuxumlar matoni iste'mol qiladigan lichinkalarga kiradi. Lichinkalar uzunligi 1/8 dan 1/4 dyuymgacha, och-jigarrang ranggacha, sekin harakatlanuvchi va tuklar yoki tuklar bilan zich qoplangan. Rivojlanayotgan lichinkalar ham to'kilgan (erigan) terilarni qoldiradi. Ular sezgir materiallar yuzasi bo'ylab o'tlayotganda, ular ko'pincha ipli dog'lar va tartibsiz teshiklarni qoldiradilar.

2-rasm: Oddiy lichinka (yuqorida) va to'kilgan teri (pastki).
3 -rasm: Gilam qo'ng'izlari tomonidan etkazilgan zarar.

Yuqorida ta'kidlab o'tilganidek, gilam qo'ng'izining lichinkalari hayvonot mahsulotlari, ayniqsa jun, kigiz, mo'yna, ipak, tuklar va teri bilan oziqlanadi. Tez -tez hujum qilinadigan narsalarga kozok, sharf, palto, adyol, gilam, yostiq va yostiq, taxta, o'yinchoqlar, bezak buyumlari va taxidermiklar kiradi. Lichinkalar ko'pincha buyumlar uzoq vaqt saqlanadigan shkaflar, sandiqlar va qutilardagi mato burmalari (etaklari, yoqalari, manjetlari va boshqalar) ichida oziqlanadi. Muntazam ishlatiladigan kiyim-kechak va ko'rpa-to'shaklarga kamdan-kam ta'sir ko'rsatadi, xuddi muntazam ravishda changyutgich bilan tozalanadigan gilamlarga ham tegishli. Gilam va gilamlarning chekkalari va pastki qismlari ko'proq ochiq joylarga qaraganda ko'proq zararlangan.

4 -rasm: Gilam qo'ng'izlari ko'pincha gilam va gilam chetlarida uchraydi.

Gilam qo'ng'izlari, shuningdek, taglik tagida va polning teshiklari va kanallarida to'plangan tuklar, sochlar va qoldiqlarda ham rivojlanishi mumkin. Zararkunandalar, shuningdek, chodirlar, bacalar, podvallar va yorug'lik moslamalari bilan bog'liq bo'lgan qushlarning uyalari, hayvonlarning jasadlari va o'lik hasharotlarda (klaster chivinlari, qo'ng'iz qo'ng'izlari, hidli hasharotlar, ari va boshqalar) ko'payishi mumkin. Kiyim kuyalaridan farqli o'laroq, gilam qo'ng'izining ba'zi navlari urug'lar, donlar, uy hayvonlari uchun oziq-ovqat va boshqa o'simlik materiallarini ham yuqtiradi. Bu xilma -xil parhez tufayli, zararkunandalarni deyarli har bir uyda topish mumkin, bu esa ularni yo'q qilishni qiyinlashtiradi.

Infektsiyalarni boshqarish

Infektsiyalarni oldini olish. Kiyim kuyalarida bo'lgani kabi, gilam qo'ng'izlari bilan bog'liq muammolardan qochishning eng yaxshi usuli - bu oldini olish. Jun va boshqa sezgir narsalarni uzoq vaqt saqlashdan oldin quruq tozalash yoki yuvish kerak. Tozalash har qanday tuxum yoki lichinkani o'ldiradi va zararkunandalarni o'ziga jalb qiladigan ter hidini yo'q qiladi. Keyin saqlanadigan buyumlar mahkam yopishtirilgan plastik qoplarga yoki idishlarga qadoqlanishi kerak.

Kuya sharlari, bo'laklari yoki kristallaridan foydalanmoqchi bo'lgan uy egalari yorliqdagi ko'rsatmalarni diqqat bilan o'qib chiqishlari va ularga rioya qilishlari kerak. Naftalin yoki paradiklorbenzolni o'z ichiga olgan uchuvchi, hidli mahsulotlar noto'g'ri ishlatilsa, xavfli bo'lishi mumkin. Hech qachon ularni ochiq shkaflarga yoki bolalar yoki uy hayvonlari yeta oladigan boshqa joylarga sochmang. Bug'lar faqat etarli konsentratsiyada saqlansa, mato zararkunandalariga qarshi samarali bo'ladi. Samarali kontsentratsiyaga sezgir narsalarni (to'plar, koptoklar yoki kristallarning belgilangan dozasi bilan) mahkam bog'lab qo'yilgan tanasi, sumkasi yoki qutisi ichida katta plastik to'rva ichiga yopish orqali erishish mumkin.

Mo'ynali kiyimlar kabi qimmatbaho kiyimlarni gilam qo'ng'izlaridan sovuq omborlarda saqlash orqali ham himoya qilish mumkin, bu xizmat ba'zi mo'ynachilar va do'konlar tomonidan taqdim etiladi. Ommabop e'tiqoddan farqli o'laroq, sadrli shkaflar yoki sandiqlar kamdan -kam hollarda mato zararkunandalariga qarshi kurashda samarali bo'ladi, chunki muhr sadr yog'ining uchuvchi yog'ining o'ldiruvchi yoki qaytaruvchi konsentratsiyasini ushlab turish uchun etarli emas.

Infestatsiyalarni nazorat qilish. Gilam qo'ng'izlarini yo'q qilish uchun siz zararlangan barcha narsalarni topishingiz kerak. Asosiy manba kamdan-kam ishlatiladigan jun yoki mo'ynali shlyapa yoki shkafdagi tokchadagi ro'mol bo'lishi mumkin, bu podvalda saqlanadigan antiqa gilamcha yoki chordoqda qush yoki sincap uyasining qoldiqlari. Gilam qo'ng'izlari sezgir buyumlar uzoq vaqt saqlanadigan qorong'i, bezovtalanmagan joylarda yashashni afzal ko'rishadi. Kiyimni tekshirayotganda, lichinkalar ko'pincha ovqatlanishni afzal ko'radigan choklar, burmalar va burmalarga (masalan, manjetlar va yoqa) e'tibor bering. Lichinkalar, shuningdek, gilam va gilamning pastki qirralarini yuqtirishga moyil. Devordan devorga gilamning tashqi chetini taglik taxtasi bo'ylab yopishtirish chizig'idan ko'tarish uchun igna burunli penslardan foydalaning. Boshqa mumkin bo'lgan joylarga yumshoq mebel tagida yoki ichida, yoki uy hayvonlarining sochlari va tuklari to'plangan polning teshiklari va kanallari kiradi. Yuqorida ta'kidlab o'tilganidek, infektsiya qushlarning uyalari, hayvonlarning jasadlari yoki chivinlar yoki xonadonlar qo'ng'izlari kabi chodirlarda yoki boshqa joylarda o'lik hasharotlar to'planishidan kelib chiqishi mumkin. Oshxonalarda va podvalda saqlanadigan yoki kemiruvchilar tomonidan saqlanadigan o'simlik materiallari (don, chorva ovqatlari, qush urug'i va boshqalar) gilam qo'ng'izlarining boshqa manbalari hisoblanadi.

5-rasm: Gilam qo'ng'izining lichinkasi jun sport ko'ylagi bilan oziqlanadi. Yashirin joylar (masalan, manjetlar, yoqa, mato burmalari) ko'pincha afzal ko'riladi.
6 -rasm: Chodirda sichqonlar uyasi bilan bog'liq gilam qo'ng'izlarining terilari (eritilgan).

Topilganidan so'ng, yaqin atrofdagi zararlangan buyumlar va sezgir buyumlarni yuvish, quruq tozalash yoki yo'q qilish kerak. Kuchli infeksiya bilan o'ralgan narsalarni tashlamaslikdan oldin ularni sumkaga solish, qo'ng'izlarning keyingi tarqalishining oldini olishga yordam beradi. Quruq tozalash yoki issiq yuvish har qanday tuxum yoki lichinkalarni o'ldiradi. Kiyim quritgichidan olinadigan issiqlik ham samarali. Zaminlar, gilamlar va ichki isitish teshiklarini changyutkich bilan tozalash lichinkalarni, shuningdek, kelajakdagi infektsiyalarni qo'llab-quvvatlashi mumkin bo'lgan soch va tuklarni samarali ravishda olib tashlaydi. Gilamning chetida, tagida, taglik taxtasida, mebel va saqlanadigan buyumlar ostida, shkaflar ichida va gilam qo'ng'izlari (va kiyimlar kuya) ovqatlanishni afzal ko'radigan sokin joylarni changyutgich bilan tozalashga ishonch hosil qiling.

7 -rasm: Tuklar va sochlarning to'planishini olib tashlash gilam qo'ng'izlari bilan bog'liq muammolarni oldini olishga yordam beradi.

Gilam va gilamlarga qo'llaniladigan insektitsidlar yaxshi uy ishlariga qo'shimcha sifatida foydali bo'lishi mumkin. Burga bilan kurashish uchun tavsiya etilgan spreylar (qarang: Kentukki Entomologiya Universiteti Entfact-602) yoki yorliqda ko'rsatilgan mato hasharotlari bilan samarali. Davolash paytida gilamning chetlariga, pol/devor birikmalariga, mebel tagiga va shkaflarning tagiga alohida e'tibor bering. Infektsiyalangan kiyim yoki choyshabni insektitsidlar bilan davolash mumkin emas.

Xavfli guruhlar uchun qo'shimcha maslahatlar

Infektsiyalarni aniqlash . Muzeylar, gilam sotuvchilari, hunarmandchilik do'konlari, mo'ynachilar va taxidermistlar gilam qo'ng'izlari va kiyim-kechak kuyalarining oldini olishda katta xavf tug'diradilar. Ayniqsa, muzey kollektsiyalari bu zararkunandalar tomonidan tuzatib bo'lmaydigan darajada zarar etkazishi mumkin, bu esa oldini olish zarurati hisoblanadi. Xavfni minimallashtirish uchun zararkunandalar faolligining alomatlari uchun himoyalanmagan narsalarni muntazam kuzatib borish kerak. Ko'rgazmada va saqlanadigan ob'ektlar teshiklar, "o'tlangan" joylar, ajratilgan sochlar, mo'ynalar yoki patlar, to'rlar, najas granulalari, lichinkalar yoki kattalar qo'ng'izlari uchun diqqat bilan tekshirilishi kerak. Lichinkalarning sevimli ovqati o'lik hasharotlar bo'lgani uchun, muzeylar va havaskorlar saqlaydigan hasharotlar kollektsiyalari namunalar ostida "chang" va qoldiqlarning to'planganligini muntazam tekshirib turishi kerak - bu zararkunandalar mavjudligidan dalolat beradi. (Yopiq muhrlangan yig'ish qutilari kelgusi hujumlardan kuya to'plari yoki dichlorvos/DDVP bilan ishlov berilgan chiziqlar qo'shilishi bilan himoyalanishi mumkin.)

8-rasm: Gilam qo'ng'izlari o'lik hasharotlarni ham tozalaydi (tarakan tana go'shti yonidagi to'kilgan teri va qoldiqlarga e'tibor bering).

Jozibali jozibali yoki jozibali yopishtiruvchi tuzoqlar ham infektsiyalarni aniqlash uchun foydalidir. Tuzoqlar ko'pincha zararkunandalarni faqat tekshirish orqali topish qiyin bo'lgan dastlabki bosqichlarda infektsiyalarni ochishda samarali bo'ladi. O'ljalangan yoki o'ljalanmagan tuzoqlarni javonlarga, shkaflarning ichki qismiga yoki sezgir narsalar paydo bo'ladigan joyga qo'yish mumkin. Katta saqlash joylarida yoki ko'rgazma joylarida asboblar zararlangan materiallarni aniqlashga yordam beradigan panjara shaklida o'rnatilishi mumkin, ya'ni qo'ng'izlar ko'proq ushlangan joylar zararlangan materiallarga yaqinroq bo'ladi.

Gilam qo'ng'izlarini (va kiyim -kechaklarni) kuzatish uchun tuzoqlarni Insects Limited (https://store.insectslimited.com) kabi etkazib beruvchilardan onlayn tarzda sotib olish mumkin. Mato zararkunandalarining ba'zi navlari aniq hidga jalb qilinganligi sababli, buyurtma berishdan oldin sizda qaysi turdagi qo'ng'iz yoki kuya borligini bilish muhimdir.

Termal zararsizlantirish. Gilam qo'ng'izlariga qarshi insektitsidlar spreyi ko'pincha cheklangan darajada qo'llaniladi, chunki zararkunandalar ko'pincha spreylar kira olmaydigan materiallarda bo'ladi. Kontaminatsiya va bo'yash xavfi ularni muzey buyumlari, kiyim-kechak va hokazolarda qo'llashni yanada inkor etadi. Bunday narsalarni ko'pincha uy xo'jaliklari, ko'krak qafasi yoki muzlatgichdan foydalangan holda samaraliroq zararsizlantirish mumkin. Gilam qo'ng'izlari va kiyim -kechaklarni o'ldirish uchun zararlangan narsalarni kamida 0 daraja Farangeytda kamida bir hafta ushlab turish kerak. Sovuqxonalar minus 20 daraja F ga yetganda, hayotning barcha bosqichlarini 72 soat ichida o'ldirishi mumkin.

9 -rasm: Muzlatish - gilam qo'ng'izlari va kiyim -kechaklarni o'ldirishning samarali usuli.

Muzlatishdan oldin buyumlar plastik qoplarga joylashtirilishi yoki polietilen plyonka bilan o'ralgan va lenta bilan yopishtirilgan bo'lishi kerak. Bu sovutish paytida muzlatish va muzlashning oldini oladi va olib tashlangandan keyin kondensatsiyalanadi. Muzlatgandan so'ng, narsalarni ochishdan yoki boshqa ishlov berishdan oldin xona haroratiga (taxminan 24 soat) qaytishiga ruxsat berish kerak. Ba'zi narsalar past haroratda mo'rt bo'lib ketadi va bu sinishni kamaytirishga yordam beradi. Zararkunandalarni nazorat qilish uchun sovuqdan (va issiqlikdan) foydalanish bo'yicha ko'proq maslahatlar uchun Kentukki universiteti Entomologiya Entfact-640, Uy-ro'zg'or buyumlarini termal zararsizlantirish bo'limiga qarang. Muzeylar va boshqa kolleksiyalarni saqlash muassasalarida zararkunandalarga qarshi kurashish uchun yana bir yaxshi onlayn resurs http://museumpests.net/ hisoblanadi.

10 -rasm: Muzlashdan oldin buyumlar (masalan, taxidermiya tog'i) plastmassaga o'ralgan bo'lishi kerak.

OGOHLANTIRISH: Ushbu nashrda qayd etilgan ba'zi pestitsidlar sizning hududingizda qonuniy bo'lmasligi mumkin. Agar shubhangiz bo'lsa, iltimos, mahalliy kooperativni kengaytirish xizmati yoki tartibga solish agentligiga murojaat qiling. QO'LLANILGAN MAHSULOTINGIZ UCHUN ENG YO'NALISHNI O'QING VA QO'LLANING.

E'tibor bering, ushbu nashrdagi tarkib va ​​fotosuratlar mualliflik huquqi bilan himoyalangan materialdir va Kentukki universiteti entomologiya bo'limining ruxsatisiz ko'chirilishi yoki yuklab olinishi mumkin emas.


Biz eng ishonchli mahsulotlarni tanladik, masalan, insektitsid kukuni, ishlatishga tayyor purkagich va bog'da purkagichda ishlatiladigan ba'zi konsentratsiyali insektitsidlar.

1. Delta Dust Multi Use Pest Control Insecticide Dust, 1 LB

Delta Dust-bu deltametrin asosidagi, insektitsidlardan foydalanishga ruxsat berilgan, yopiq xonalarda foydalanish uchun tasdiqlangan. Ushbu universal insektitsid kukuni bir funtli paketlarda mavjud. Chang zararkunandalar yashaydigan yoki ular istalmagan joylarga sepiladi va turli hasharotlarni o'ldiradi. Bundan tashqari, zararkunandalar uchun qaytaruvchi to'siq yaratadi.

Siz uni bo'yoq cho'tkasi bilan surtishingiz yoki Pest Pistol Mini Duster kabi qulayroq dastani ishlatishingiz mumkin. Ammo davolanishdan keyin yaxshilab tozalashga tayyor bo'ling, chunki foydalanuvchilar gilam qo'ng'izlariga qarshi chindan ham chang samarali ekanligini tasdiqlashsa -da, bu usul juda iflos, chunki chang hamma yoqdan oqib chiqadi.


Zararkunandalarni qanday boshqarish kerak

Gilam qo'ng'izining lichinkalari bolalarning ip, makaron va loviyadan tayyorlangan badiiy loyihasini yuqtirmoqda.

Voyaga etgan turli xil gilam qo'ng'izi.

Turli xil gilam qo'ng'izi oxirgi bosqichli lichinka terisi (chapda) va kattalar (markazda va o'ngda).

Qora gilam qo'ng'izining lichinkalari (chapda) va kattalarda (o'ngda).

Dermestidlar deb nomlanuvchi qo'ng'izlar oilasiga mansub gilam qo'ng'izlari omborlarda, uylarda, muzeylarda va boshqa oziq -ovqat mavjud bo'lgan joylardagi zararkunandalardir. Kaliforniyada gilam qo'ng'izlarining 3 turi mato, gilam, mo'yna, saqlanadigan oziq -ovqat va taxidermiya kabi saqlangan namunalarga jiddiy zarar etkazadi: turli gilam qo'ng'izi (Anthrenus verbasci), mebel gilam qo'ng'izi (Anthrenus chayqaladi) va qora gilam qo'ng'izi (Bir rangli Attagenus).

Identifikatsiya VA HAYOT TIKLI

Barcha 3 gilam qo'ng'iz turi o'xshash hayot davrlariga ega (ushbu ma'lumotlarning jadval ko'rinishi uchun 1-jadvalga qarang). Kattalar mo'yna, jun mato va gilam kabi oziq -ovqat manbalariga tuxum qo'yadilar. Tuxum taxminan 2 hafta ichida odatdagi yopiq sharoitda (xona harorati: 25-26 ° S yoki 77-78 ° F) tushadi va lichinkalar turlarga va atrof-muhit sharoitlariga qarab, qorong'i, tanho joylarni afzal ko'rgan holda, turli davrlarda boqiladi. Lichinkalar qo'g'irchoqqa tayyor bo'lgach, oziq -ovqat ichiga kirib ketishi yoki boshqa joyga aylanishi mumkin. Agar boshqa boshpana bo'lmasa, ular oxirgi lichinka terisida ham qo'g'irchoq bo'lishi mumkin.

Garchi gilam qo'ng'izining lichinkalari kiyimlar kuya kabi to'r hosil qilmasa ham, ularning to'kilgan terilari va najasli granulalari, xuddi tuz doniga teng, ular qayerda ovqatlanayotganini aniq ko'rsatib beradi.

Yumaloq tanalari va qisqa antennalari bilan katta yoshli gilam qo'ng'izlari shakli oddiy ayol qo'ng'izlarga o'xshaydi, lekin hajmi jihatidan ancha kichikroq.

Gilam qo'ng'izining kattalari mato bilan oziqlanmaydi, lekin polen va nektarni qidiradi, shuning uchun odatda ochiq havoda topiladi, ko'pincha krep -mersin, spirae, grechka va boshqa ko'plab gulchanglarni chiqaradigan o'simliklarning gullari bilan oziqlanadi. Gilam qo'ng'izlari tez -tez peyzajdagi gullardan uylarga uchib ketishadi, lekin tasodifan va tez -tez kesilgan gullar kabi narsalarni olib kirishadi. Ular quyosh nuriga jalb qilinadi. Gilam qo'ng'izi kattalar uy ichida topilganda, ular odatda derazalar, pardalar yoki deraza oynalari yonida ko'rinadi.

Har xil gilam qo'ng'izi

Voyaga etgan turli xil gilam qo'ng'izi, Anthrenus verbasci, uzunligi taxminan 1/10 dyuym va qora rangda, uning qanotlari qopqog'ida oq, jigarrang va to'q sariq rangli tarozilarning tartibsiz naqshlari mavjud. Katta yoshli odamlarda bu naqshni tashkil etuvchi tarozilar eskiradi, shuning uchun qo'ng'izlar qattiq jigarrang yoki qora ko'rinadi.

Ochiq havoda urg'ochi qo'ng'izlar tuxum qo'yadigan joy sifatida o'rgimchak to'ri yoki ari, ari yoki qush uyalarini qidiradilar. Bu uyalar va to'rlarda o'lik hasharotlar, asal mumi, gulchanglar, patlar yoki lichinkalar uchun ozuqa bo'lib xizmat qiladigan boshqa qoldiqlar mavjud. Qo'ng'iroqlar yopiq joylarda gilam va gilamchalarga, jun buyumlarga, hayvonlarning terisiga, mo'ynali kiyimlarga, to'ldirilgan hayvonlarga, charmdan qilingan kitoblarga, tuklarga, hayvon shoxlariga, kit suyaklariga, sochlarga, ipaklarga, quritilgan o'simlik mahsulotlariga va boshqa materiallarga tuxum qo'yadilar. lichinka ovqati. Kattalar odatda bahorda yoki yozning boshida yopiq joylarda paydo bo'ladi, siz ularni deraza yonida topasiz.

Yetuk lichinkalar kattalarga qaraganda bir oz uzunroq bo'lib, zich tuklar bilan qoplangan. Agar ular bezovta qilsalar, bu tuplarni vertikal ravishda dumaloq shlangga cho'zadilar. Ular o'zgaruvchan ochiq va to'q jigarrang chiziqlarga ega va boshqa gilam qo'ng'izining lichinkalaridan ajralib turadi, chunki ular orqa tomondan kengroq va oldida torroq.

Turli xil gilam qo'ng'izlari odatda 40 ta tuxum qo'yadi, ularning chiqishi 10 dan 20 kungacha davom etadi. Lichinkalar qo'g'irchoq bo'lgunga qadar 220 dan 630 kungacha yashaydi. Ular 10 dan 13 kungacha qo'g'irchoq bo'lib, kattalar bo'lib paydo bo'ladi. Ayol katta yoshli turli gilam qo'ng'izlari 2 dan 6 haftagacha, kattalar erkaklari esa 2 dan 4 haftagacha yashaydi.

Mebel gilam qo'ng'izlari

Yuqoridan qaralganda, mebel gilam qo'ng'izining kattalari, Anthrenus chayqaladi, gilam qo'ng'iziga qaraganda biroz kattaroq va yumaloqroq. Rang va markirovka turlicha, lekin mebel gilam qo'ng'izi qanot qopqog'ida oq va to'q sariqdan to'q sariq ranggacha cho'zilgan qora dog'lar tufayli odatda rang -barang ko'rinishga ega. Agar bu tarozilar eskirgan bo'lsa, kattalar qattiq qora bo'lib ko'rinishi mumkin. Ularning pastki qismi oq rangda.

Lichinkalar dastlab oq rangga ega bo'ladi, lekin pishganida to'q qizil yoki kashtan jigarranggacha qorayadi. Turli xil gilam qo'ng'izining lichinkalaridan farqli o'laroq, bu lichinkalar old tomondan kengroq va orqa tomondan torroq. Mebel gilam qo'ng'izining lichinkalari turli xil gilam qo'ng'izi lichinkalari bilan bir xil turdagi narsalar bilan oziqlanadi.

Mebel gilam qo'ng'izining hayot aylanishi turli xil gilam qo'ng'iziga o'xshaydi. Odatda mebel gilam qo'ng'izi 60 tuxum qo'yadi, ular 9 dan 16 kungacha chiqadi. Lichinkalar pupatsiyadan oldin 70-94 kun yashaydi. Ular 14 dan 17 kungacha qo'g'irchoq bo'lib qoladi va kattalar paydo bo'lishidan oldin. Katta mebel gilam qo'ng'izlari 4 dan 8 haftagacha yashaydi.

Qora gilam qo'ng'izi

Qora gilam qo'ng'izining kattalari va lichinkalari, Bir rangli Attagenus, yuqorida tasvirlangan gilam qo'ng'izlaridan sezilarli farq qiladi. Voyaga etgan qora gilam qo'ng'izlarining uzunligi 1/8 dan 3/16 dyuymgacha. Ular yaltiroq qora va to'q jigarrang, oyoqlari jigarrang. To'liq o'lchamli lichinkalar uzunligi 5/16 dyuymgacha bo'lishi mumkin va ochiq jigarrangdan deyarli qora ranggacha bo'lishi mumkin.

Lichinkalar yaltiroq, silliq, qattiq va kalta, qattiq tuklari tanasini yopib turadi. Ularning tanasi orqa tomonga torayib, uzun tuklar bilan tugaydi. Kaliforniya va boshqa qurg'oqchil hududlarda qora gilam qo'ng'izi saqlanadigan mahsulotlar (masalan, don, un, don) uchun mato zararkunandalaridan ko'ra jiddiyroq zararkunanda hisoblanadi.

Qora gilam qo'ng'izi odatda 90 ta tuxum qo'yadi, bu boshqa ikkita gilam qo'ng'iziga qaraganda ko'proq. Tuxumlar 9-16 kundan keyin chiqadi va lichinkalar 166 dan 330 kungacha yashaydi. Pupa bosqichi 8 dan 14 kungacha davom etadi. Voyaga etgan qora gilam qo'ng'izlari 4 dan 8 haftagacha yashaydi.

Jadval 1. Gilam qo'ng'izlarining uchta turining hayot aylanishi.
Har xil gilam qo'ng'izi Mebel gilam qo'ng'iz Qora gilam qo'ng'izi
kattalar lichinka kattalar lichinka kattalar lichinka
Tug'ilgan tuxum soni 40 60 90
Tuxum chiqmasidan bir necha kun oldin 10&ndash20 9 va ndash16 6 va ndash16
Lichinkalar bosqichi uchun kunlar soni 220 va ndash630 70&ndash94 166 va ndash330
Pupatsiya uchun kunlar 10 va ndash13 14&ndash17 8 va ndash14
Katta yoshdagidek haftalar ayol 2 & ndash6 erkak 2 & ndash4 4&ndash8 4&ndash8

ZARAR

Gilam qo'ng'izining lichinkalari jun, ipak, teri, mo'yna, tabiiy tuklari bo'lgan soch cho'tkalari, uy hayvonlari sochlari va patlar kabi turli xil o'lik hayvonlar va hayvonot mahsulotlari bilan oziqlanish orqali zarar etkazadi, ba'zida ular saqlanadigan mahsulotlar, masalan, ba'zi ziravorlar va donalar bilan oziqlanadi. Ular sintetik tolalar bilan oziqlanmaydi. Lichinkalarni boqish faoliyatining aksariyati qorong'i, buzilmagan joylarda sodir bo'ladi.

Kiyim -kechak yoki gilam qo'ng'izlari zarar etkazganmi yoki yo'qligini har doim ham aniq aytish mumkin emas, lekin umuman gilam qo'ng'izlari kiyim yoki gilamning bir qismining katta maydoniga zarar etkazishi mumkin, kuya esa shikastlangan teshiklarda ko'rinadi. Bundan tashqari, gilam qo'ng'izining lichinkalari jigarrang, qobiqsimon, tukli ko'rinadigan quyma terilarini eriganda qoldiradi. Bu terilar va to'rlarning etishmasligi, odatda, gilam qo'ng'izlari aybdor ekanligi haqida yaxshi ma'lumotdir.

Ba'zida pianinolardagi kigiz va bolg'alar zararlangan va shu qadar shikastlanganki, bu asbobning ohangiga va harakatiga ta'sir qiladi. Sintetik kigiz almashtirishni tavsiya qiladigan pianino ustasi bilan bog'laning.

Menejment

Gilam qo'ng'izlari nazorat qilish qiyin bo'lgan yopiq zararkunandalar qatoriga kiradi, chunki ular noaniq joylarda oziq-ovqat topishlari va bino bo'ylab keng tarqalishlari mumkin. Muvaffaqiyatli nazorat sanitariya va istisnolarning kombinatsiyasiga bog'liq. Agar istisno va sanitariya muvaffaqiyatli bo'lsa, insektitsid bilan davolash talab qilinmaydi.

Gilam qo'ng'izlari ko'pincha peyzajdagi gullardan uylarga uchib ketishadi. Uyda bir nechta kattalar qo'ng'izlari xavotirga solmasligi kerak. Agar siz uyingizda matolarda yoki boshqa joylarda lichinkalar rivojlanayotganini ko'rsangiz, menejmentni amalga oshirish kerak.

Gilam qo'ng'izlari savdo omborlari yoki omborxonalarida mahsulotlarga tahdid solganda, tegishli feromon bilan o'ralgan yopishqoq tuzoqlardan foydalangan holda monitoring dasturi tavsiya etiladi (organizm bir xil turdagi boshqalarni jalb qilish uchun ishlab chiqaradi).

Yopishqoq tuzoqlardan infestatsiyalar jiddiy bo'lgan uylarda ham foydalanish mumkin. Bino bo'ylab qo'yilgan tuzoqlar qo'ng'izlar qayerdan kelayotganini ko'rsatishi mumkin. Tuzoqlar nazorat amaliyotining samaradorligini kuzatish uchun ham foydalidir. Haftada bir yoki ikki marta tuzoqlarni tekshiring.

Kichkina cheklangan joylarda kattalar erkak qo'ng'izlarni jalb qilish orqali boshqa nazorat usullarini kuchaytirish uchun feromon tuzoqlaridan ham foydalanishingiz mumkin. Yopishqoq tuzoqlarni feromonlarsiz, derazalarga osib qo'yadigan kattalarni tuzoqqa tushirish uchun ham qo'yish mumkin. Oddiy yopishqoq tuzoqlar chakana savdo do'konlarida mavjud. Feromon bilan o'ralgan yopishqoq tuzoqlarni mahalliy zararkunandalarga qarshi kurash operatorlari, pestitsidlarni etkazib beruvchilar va Internetda topish mumkin. Feromon tuzoqlari turlarga xosdir, shuning uchun sizning muammoingizni keltirib chiqaradigan turlarni o'ziga jalb etuvchi vositadan foydalanish muhim.

Manbani yo'q qilish

Gilam qo'ng'izlari uchun oziq-ovqat bo'lib xizmat qiladigan tuklar, sochlar, o'lik hasharotlar va boshqa qoldiqlarning to'planishini yo'q qiling. Yomon zararlangan narsalarni tashlang. Qadimgi o'rgimchak to'rlarini va infestatsiyalar bo'lishi mumkin bo'lgan qushlar, kemiruvchilar, ari va ari uyalarini olib tashlang. Gullarni ichkariga olib kirishdan oldin, kattalar qo'ng'izlari uchun kesilgan gullarni tekshiring. Gilam qo'ng'izlarining tashqi manbalardan uchib ketishiga yo'l qo'ymaslik uchun deraza, eshik va teshiklari ishonchli ekanligiga ishonch hosil qiling.

Gilam, pardalar, yumshoq mebellar, shkaflar va gilam qo'ng'izlari yig'iladigan boshqa joylarni muntazam va puxta tozalash bu zararkunandalarning oldini olish va ularga qarshi kurashda muhim ahamiyatga ega. Tez-tez, yaxshilab changyutgich bilan tozalash oziq-ovqat manbalarini, shuningdek, gilam qo'ng'izining tuxumlari, lichinkalari va kattalarni olib tashlashning samarali usuli hisoblanadi. Zararlangan joylarni changyutkichdan tozalashdan so'ng, sumkani tezda yo'q qiling, chunki unda tuxum, lichinkalar yoki kattalar hasharotlari bo'lishi mumkin.

Oziq-ovqatlarni toza saqlash orqali matolarni himoya qiling va matolardagi ter dog'lari gilam qo'ng'izlarini o'ziga tortadi. Yuviladigan narsalarni issiq suvda yaxshilab yuvish yoki quruq tozalash bu hasharotlarning barcha bosqichlarini o'ldiradi. Bu kiyim, adyol va boshqa yuviladigan buyumlardagi mato zararkunandalariga qarshi kurashishning eng muhim usuli.

Muzey buyumlari yoki o'yin kuboklari kabi o'rnatilgan hayvonlar namunalarini muntazam tozalang yoki vaqti-vaqti bilan ularni 10 dan 14 kungacha muzlatgichga qo'ying. Saqlangan jun, zig'ir va mo'ynali kiyimlarni tekshiring va bu narsalarni har yili quyoshda shamollatib, yaxshilab cho'tka bilan tozalang. Agar siz infektsiyani topsangiz, saqlashga qaytarishdan oldin bu narsalarni yuving yoki quruq tozalang. Tozalangan narsalarni himoya plastik to'rva yoki boshqa tegishli idishga muhrlashni unutmang.

Ba'zi mebellar, zambil va yostiqlar sochlar yoki tuklar bilan to'ldirilgan. Gilam qo'ng'izlari to'ldirishga kirganda, siz bu hasharotlarni buyumning tashqi yuzasiga purkash orqali boshqarishingiz mumkin. Zararkunandalarni yo'q qilishning eng yaxshi usuli - zararkunandalarga qarshi kurash, quruq tozalash yoki zararkunandalarni o'ldiradigan gaz bilan fumigatsiya omborida davolay oladigan saqlash firmasini izlash. Fumigantlarni qo'llagan shaxs uchun potentsial xavf tug'dirishi sababli, faqat litsenziyalangan zararkunandalarga qarshi kurash operatorlari ularni sotib olishlari va foydalanishlari mumkin. To'g'ri fumigatsiya tez, qoniqarli nazoratni ta'minlaydi va mato zararkunandalarining barcha bosqichlarini o'ldiradi. Biroq, bu qayta infektsiyani oldini olmaydi.

Saqlash ob'ektlarini himoya qilish

Gilam qo'ng'izlariga sezgir bo'lgan narsalarni to'g'ri saqlash uchun, birinchi navbatda, zararkunandalar yo'qligiga ishonch hosil qiling, so'ngra har bir dyuymli qog'oz qatlamini joylashtirib, havo o'tkazmaydigan idishga joylashtiring. Ushbu qog'oz qatlamlarida siz matolarda gilam qo'ng'izlari bilan kurashish uchun etiketlangan kuya to'plari, yoriqlar yoki kristallarni joylashtirishingiz mumkin. Bu mahsulotlar tarkibida paradiklorobenzol (PDB) mavjud bo'lib, uni 1,4-diklorobenzol deb ham atashadi, bug 'vazifasini bajaradigan insektitsid, qaytaruvchi birikma.

Bu insektitsid mahsulotlarini plastik tugmalar, ilmoqlar yoki kiyim sumkalari bilan to'g'ridan -to'g'ri aloqa qilishiga yo'l qo'ymang, chunki faol modda plastmassaning matoga erishi va yumshatilishiga olib kelishi mumkin. Bundan tashqari, ushbu mahsulotlarni bolalar va uy hayvonlari qo'li etmaydigan joyda saqlang va ularni qadoqlanmagan oziq -ovqat saqlanadigan joyda yoki oziq -ovqat yoki oshxona anjomlari bilan aloqa qilishiga yo'l qo'ymang.

Odatda, shkaflar havo o'tkazmaydi va bug'da ushlab turish uchun juda tez-tez ochiladi. Magistral, sandiq, quti yoki kiyim sumkasi yaxshi saqlash idishini yaratadi. Har qanday teshik yoki yoriqni muhrlab qo'ying va agar qopqoq mahkam o'rnashmasa, uni lenta bilan yopishtiring yoki butun idishni og'ir qog'ozga o'rab, lenta bilan mahkamlang.

Saqlangan narsalarda gilam qo'ng'izlarini nazorat qilishning muqobil usullari, zararlangan ob'ektni pechda kamida 30 daqiqa davomida 120 daraja yoki undan yuqori haroratda qizdirish yoki ob'ektni plastik to'rva bilan o'rab, 18 ° dan past haroratda 2 hafta davomida muzlatgichda saqlashni o'z ichiga oladi. Ushbu usullardan birini ishlatishdan oldin, sovuq yoki issiqlik ob'ektga zarar etkazishini o'ylab ko'ring.

Haddan tashqari sovuq yoki issiqlik bilan ishlov berish uchun juda mo'rt narsalar uchun anoksik ishlov berish (kislorodni olib tashlash) variant sifatida ko'rib chiqilishi mumkin. Birinchidan, zararlangan narsalarni saqlash uchun kislorod o'tkazmaydigan sumka kerak. Keyin kislorodni olib tashlash uchun sumkaga kislorodni tozalash vositalarini (kislorodni yutadigan kimyoviy moddalar) kiritish kerak. Gilam qo'ng'izlarining barcha rivojlanish bosqichlarini atmosferadagi kislorod miqdori 8-21 kun davomida 0,1-0,5% dan past darajada ushlab turilsa nazorat qilish mumkin. Biroq, nisbatan uzoq davom etadigan davolash vaqtiga qo'shimcha ravishda, bu usul to'g'ri muhrlangan korpus va juda ixtisoslashgan materiallar to'plamini (kislorod o'tkazmaydigan plyonka, kislorod indikatori va kislorodni tozalash vositasi) talab qiladi.

Sidrdan yasalgan sandiqlar va shkafli pollarning samaradorligi munozarali. Ba'zi sadr tarkibida katta lichinkalarga ta'sir qilmaydigan, lekin kichiklarni o'ldirishi mumkin bo'lgan yog' mavjud. Biroq, sadr bu yog'ni qarigan sari yo'qotadi. Ko'krak qafasi mahkam yasalgan bo'lishi, uni tayyorlash uchun ishlatiladigan yog'och turidan ko'ra, uzoq muddatda muhimroqdir.

Boshqa kimyoviy usullar

Tozalash har doim eng yaxshi strategiya, ammo agar sizda ifloslangan joy yoki buyum bo'lsa, uni quritib yoki yuvib bo'lmaydi, siz insektitsidni qo'llashingiz mumkin. Yorliqda gilam qo'ng'izlari ko'rsatilgan mahsulotni toping va ko'rsatmalarga qat'iy amal qiling.

Insektitsidlarni dog'larni davolash uchun qo'llang va pol qoplamalarining chetlariga, gilam va mebel ostiga, shkaflarning pollari va devorlariga, sezgir matolar saqlanadigan javonlarga, yoriqlar va yoriqlarga va tuklar to'plangan boshqa joylarga qo'llashni cheklang. Kiyim yoki to'shakni buzmang.

Chodirlarni, devor bo'shliqlarini va boshqa kira olmaydigan joylarni davolashda, silika aerogel kabi insektitsidli changlardan foydalaning (masalan, CimeXa insektitsidli chang, silikon dioksidi faol moddasi). Materialni nafas olmaslik uchun ehtiyot choralarini ko'ring. Ba'zi chang formulalari nafas olish muammolari bo'lgan odamlarga salbiy ta'sir ko'rsatishi mumkin. Har doim yorliqdagi ehtiyot choralarini diqqat bilan o'qing va bajaring.

Og'ir mebellar ostidagi gilam bilan qoplangan joylarni va gilam qirralari bo'ylab infektsiyani aniqlang. Agar tirik lichinkalar topilsa, ifloslangan gilamning iloji boricha ikki tomoniga püskürtün, binoni ehtimolini kamaytirish uchun ustki yuzasiga engilroq spreyi surting. If the rug pad contains animal hair or wool and hasn&rsquot been treated by the manufacturer, spray it as well. It is better to wait until the rug has dried before putting any weight on it. If you are concerned that sprays might damage expensive broadloom or Oriental rugs, hire an experienced pest control operator or carpet-cleaning company. Instead of insecticide treatment, area rugs can also be taken to dry cleaners who handle rugs.

For professional pest management operators, resin strip products containing the volatile active ingredient dichlorvos (DDVP) are available for use in residential areas to treat infested objects in airtight containers. The label directions specify that only licensed pest management professionals can use these products.

Dichlorvos evaporates from the resin strip producing vapors that, in sufficient concentration, will kill insects. The vapors build up to the required concentration only in an airtight container, thereby killing the carpet beetles.

These resin strips are not to be used in any area where people will be present for extended periods of time, specifically, more than 4 hours at a time. Dichlorvos is classified by the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) as a Group B2, probable human carcinogen.

Consumer products containing DDVP are available, but great precaution should be taken when using these products. Do not use these products in areas occupied for more than four hours per day. They are intended for use in closed areas not frequently visited such as garages, sheds, and storage units. Always read and adhere to the pesticide label.

Do not use insecticide sprays around open flames, sparks, or electrical circuits and don&rsquot spray them on asphalt or tile floors. Use only a light application on parquet floors. On linoleums, first spray a small inconspicuous area and let it dry to see if staining occurs.

Applying protective sprays to furs is not recommended. If you store furs at home during the summer, either protect them with moth crystals, flakes, or balls, or periodically shake and air them. Furs in commercial storage receive professional care, and you can insure them against damage.

REFERENCES

Mallis, A., D. Moreland, and S. A. Hedges. 2011. The Mallis Handbook of Pest Control, 10th ed. Cleveland: GIE Publications.

Moore, W. S., C. S. Koehler, and C. S. Davis. 1979. Carpet Beetles and Clothes Moths. UC ANR Publication 2524. Oakland, CA.

O&rsquoConnor-Marer, P. 2006. Residential, Industrial, and Institutional Pest Control, 2 -nashr. UC ANR Publication 3334. Oakland, CA.

The MuseumPests Working Group (MP-WG). 2019. Solutions Controlled Atmosphere. [Accessed March 19,2020].

PUBLICATION INFORMATION

Pest Notes: Carpet Beetle

AUTHOR: Dong-Hwan Choe, Entomology, UC Riverside

TECHNICAL EDITOR: K Windbiel-Rojas
ANR ASSOCIATE EDITOR: AM Sutherland
EDITOR: B Messenger-Sikes

Produced by University of California Statewide IPM Program

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All contents copyright © 2020 The Regents of the University of California. Barcha huquqlar himoyalangan.


Cooperative Extension: Insect Pests, Ticks and Plant Diseases

Four species of carpet beetles are of major concern in Maine. Most important is the black carpet beetle, which is black, oval and less than 1/4 inch long. The carrot-shaped larva (young or immature) is less than 1/2 inch long, reddish or golden brown with short hair on its body and a tuft of long hair at the end of its abdomen. Black carpet beetle larvae are more likely to feed on grains than other carpet beetles.

Because adults of the varied, common and furniture carpet beetles are similar in form and habits, they are grouped together here. These beetles are about 1/8 inch long and have a broadly oval appearance. There are minor differences in the 1/4 long larvae of these three pests.

The larval stage does most of the damage. Even though they are called carpet beetles, the larvae feed on many other items. Preferred foods include animal products, such as skins, furs, feathers, wool, hair and dead insects, but they also eat cotton to some extent. They are known to eat holes in yarns that are blends of wool and synthetic fibers. Because synthetics are not digestible, larvae need to eat more of each material to get enough wool to meet nutritional requirements. Consequently, great feeding damage occurs.

Adult beetles are good fliers and are attracted to light. Finding adult beetles on window sills is often the first sign of infestation. But by that time, the larvae have already damaged items.

Beetle infestation occurs in many ways. In warmer climates, the creatures apparently survive outside, providing a ready source for household infestation. In Maine, these insects are more likely to come into homes on clothes, cloth or almost anything that is brought indoors.

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Carpet beetles are best controlled by a pest management professional. However, there are steps the homeowner can take to prevent or control the pests.

Good housekeeping helps prevent infestation and, more importantly, reveals infestations early before significant damage is done. It is wise to treat, wash or dry clean second hand clothes immediately upon bringing them home. If exposed to beetles, untreated animal skins, fur clothes, woolen rags, etc., are likely to be infested. Be sure to clean out-of-season items before storing. Checking items that have not been used for several months helps prevent severe damage. Clothes that were worn or soiled, e.g. socks, sweaters or slippers are more likely to hold sweat or food particles, making the garments more attractive to these pests.

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Dry cleaning kills the pests in all stages of development washing is also helpful, as is using a clothes dryer. Remember that woolens are damaged by temperatures above 100°F temperatures in clothes dryers range from 160 to 210°F. Placing clothes in tight plastic bags or trunks helps to discourage beetles, but is not always effective. Napthalene mothballs or flakes are a fair preventive. Paradichlorobenzene flakes are better because they also have some insecticidal effect. Do not count on cedar closets or chests to keep moths or carpet beetles from damaging garments. Moth-proof the garments. Valuable furs are best in cold storage (45°F or lower).

Vacuuming upholstered furniture, carpets and carpet pads (especially edges of carpets and near mop boards), and hard to reach areas under furniture may also lessen the degree of an infestation. Do not overlook lint in isolated areas like heat ducts and attics.

Beetles can survive on foods caught under sinks and behind refrigerators. Pet foods can also sustain a carpet beetle infestation. Be aware of what is stored in attics. Anything beetles can feed on that was not treated with an insecticide and lies in an undisturbed place attracts the pests. Even felts in pianos and lined instrument cases have been destroyed. Check rodenticide baits (D-con, Havoc, etc.). These baits do not kill insects that feed on them.

There are two kinds of clothes moths that prefer the same foods as carpet beetles. Several other beetles resemble carpet beetles in color and shape, but these primarily attack dried fruits and grains. Items infested with larvae of these insects may be thought to be infested with carpet beetles. Because of this, it is very important to identify pests correctly and use appropriate control measures.

Using insecticides to control carpet beetles requires a thorough application in the proper places– wherever infestations might lurk. Insecticides that are registered for carpet beetle control are cyfluthrin, bifenthrin, deltamethrin, permethrin and tetramethrin. Liquid or EC (emulsifiable concentrates), dusts and aerosol (pressurized) sprays are the usual insecticide formulations used.

Carpet Considerations

A word of caution is in order: red dyes, even when used to make other colors, of some carpets may change color or stain when sprayed with some insecticide formulations. Check labels for such warnings! When you need to treat a carpet but do not know the potential for discolorations, treat a small, inconspicuous spot on the carpet with the insecticide. Check the test spot for discoloration or staining in a week or so. This color test is done at your own risk. When purchasing a carpet, document the discoloration (dye or staining) potential for future reference.

When Using Pesticides

ALWAYS FOLLOW LABEL DIRECTIONS!

Pest Management Unit
Cooperative Extension Diagnostic and Research Laboratory
17 Godfrey Drive, Orono, ME 04473
1.800.287.0279 (in Maine)

Information in this publication is provided purely for educational purposes. No responsibility is assumed for any problems associated with the use of products or services mentioned. No endorsement of products or companies is intended, nor is criticism of unnamed products or companies implied.

Call 800.287.0274 (in Maine), or 207.581.3188, for information on publications and program offerings from University of Maine Cooperative Extension, or visit extension.umaine.edu.

The University of Maine is an EEO/AA employer, and does not discriminate on the grounds of race, color, religion, sex, sexual orientation, transgender status, gender expression, national origin, citizenship status, age, disability, genetic information or veteran’s status in employment, education, and all other programs and activities. The following person has been designated to handle inquiries regarding non-discrimination policies: Sarah E. Harebo, Director of Equal Opportunity, 101 North Stevens Hall, University of Maine, Orono, ME 04469-5754, 207.581.1226, TTY 711 (Maine Relay System).


Carpet beetles

Carpet beetles are the ultimate household scavengers and most homes older than two years probably have resident populations of carpet beetles. The reason being is that the larval stages can eat most everything of plant and animal origin, both manufactured and naturally occurring. Carpet beetle larvae prefer dried protein, so they like to eat dead insects, hair, dander, woolen rugs and clothing, silk clothing, wool carpeting, felts, skins, furs, feathers, upholstered furniture, wool blankets, leather, and dried meats, beans, peas, corn, wheat, rice and many other seeds and seed products. These insects also occur outdoors where they feed in and under dead animals and in the nests of birds, wasps and bees.

The larvae or grubs are small, reddish-brown and hairy. Larvae develop in dark, undisturbed locations and under normal conditions require about a year to complete their life cycle. Larvae are responsible for all of the feeding damage. Adults are tiny oval-shaped beetles that are often covered with scale-like seta (hairs). They emerge in the spring and commonly congregate on window ledges. Outside, the beetles are commonly found on flowers where they feed on pollen.

Carpet beetles are difficult to control because most times it is difficult to locate the origin of the infestation. The best way to combat carpet beetles in homes is to reduce their food sources. Rooms should be cleaned often enough to prevent the accumulation of hair, dander and other carpet beetle food materials. These insects are commonly found along the edges of wall-to-wall carpet where hair and dander accumulate and in wool carpets under heavy furniture and in heating system ducts. Another source of carpet beetles is wall voids (the area inside walls between studs) where dead insects accumulate. Abandoned nests of birds, rodents, wasps and bees that are in or near the house may also serve as the source of carpet beetles.

The main concern of carpet beetles in most cases is not carpets but clothing and other items made of proteinaceous materials such as wool, fur, feathers or silk. For this reason, woolens that have been in storage and undisturbed for over a year should be routinely checked for damage and signs of insects. Carpet beetle larvae are responsible for the nipped treads and tiny holes we find in wool sweaters, coats and pants. Often their cast skins can be found on the clothing or closet shelves.

Preventing carpet beetle damage to clothing begins with dry cleaning or laundering before storing it for the summer. Not only will this kill any carpet beetle larvae present, but laundering also makes the clothing less nutritious for the larvae. We actually enhance the nutritional content of clothing just by wearing it because of the oil and salt that rubs off our bodies and is absorbed by our clothes. We probably improve the taste of the sweater too because we all know that food tastes better with the addition of salt and oil.

After laundering, place cleaned woolens in an insect-free chest or plastic tote that has a tight fitting lid. This should protect the woolens until fall when we resume wearing these clothes. Moth balls placed in an envelope or wrapped in paper can be placed in totes containing woolens that are likely to be in storage for long periods of time. Woolens that are likely never to be worn again should be donated to a worthy cause.

Persistent insecticides registered for use inside homes such as Bayer&rsquos Advanced Home Insect Control or Ortho Home Insect Defense Maxx, can be applied in storage areas, edges of carpeting, baseboards, cracks and crevices to help control these pests. Great care should be taken when using these poisons in the home. Be sure to read and follow all the instructions and safety precautions found on the pesticide label before using any pesticide.


How To Identify the Different Species

Because they can fly, carpet beetles gain access to your home from open windows and doors, etc. Although more prevalent during summer when they are out feeding on flower nectar, they will stay inside a house all year long.

Since we control the climate of our homes through air conditioning and heating, these pests find our houses the perfect environment in which to breed.

The Black Carpet Beetle

This species is dark brown or black. It has brown legs and antennae. It is bullet-shaped. Their larvae grow to about ¼ of an inch and are carrot-shaped and covered in brown hairs. They eat grains and will contaminate your food.

The Varied Carpet Beetle

They are about 2-3 mm long while their larvae are about 4-5 mm long. The adult is easily identified. It has patches of brown, white, and yellow on its body, giving it a ‘splotchy’ appearance. The larvae are covered in tufts of bristly hair.

The Common Carpet Beetle

This species is sometimes known as the buffalo beetle. Adults range in size from 2.8 mm to 3.8 mm long. They are covered in black and white scales, appearing black with a white line of dots in bands. They also have a red or orange band of scales running down their thorax. Their larvae are reddish brown and covered in fine hairs.


How To Deal With Carpet Beetles

Once you realize that you have carpet beetles within your home, your next order of business is to deal with them. You can do this in various ways.

Removing Heavily Infested Materials

Start by inspecting all your carpets, furniture, and clothing. Carefully investigate every dark corner, edge, crease, seam, and fold. If you find out that parts of your carpets, clothing, and other furnishings are heavily infested, you need to cut your losses.

Remove those materials, bag them, then dispose of them safely so that you can start afresh. Consider replacing those items with others that are made of synthetic fibers. They will be less likely to be attacked by carpet beetles.

Clean And Vacuum Your Home

You should clean and vacuum everything in your home thoroughly once you find carpet beetle infestation. That includes the beneath the carpet edges, floor, and within heating vents. Also, clean underneath all your stored things and along your baseboards.

Also, clean out pet fur, droppings, and where they tend to rest. Pay close attention to dark and hard-to-reach areas. And you may want to store both pet foods in airtight containers to prevent carpet beetles from being attracted to your space.

Launder Your Stuff

If you suspect that your things have carpet beetle infestation, you need to launder them. Ensure that you use hot water or steam when laundering your items. The heat will help kill the larvae or eggs in your stuff, which will hatch if you don’t deal with them.

Use Insecticides

When dealing with a nasty carpet beetle infestation, you may have to use insecticide to kill the adult beetles, larvae, and eggs. If you use this option, pay close attention to wall/floor junctions underneath your carpeting and even inside your closet. However, you should avoid using insecticide on your clothing or bedding.

If you are not an expert at using insecticides, you need to consult professionals. Do not take unnecessary risks with your health or home. Professional pest control service providers will know the most effective chemicals to get rid of carpet beetles. Also, they have the right gear and can protect themselves and your stuff from harmful chemicals.

Hire A Professional

Left to your own devices, you may not know where to start concerning carpet beetles and how to identify then deal with them. For this reason, it would help if you hired a home inspection professional to check your home and determine if you have carpet beetles. They are essential for many reasons.

Professional home inspectors have more experience and knowledge than you do. They can quickly identify the damage that carpet beetles have caused and alert you to their presence. They also know where these insects are likely to hide. And should you need to find professional pest control service providers, they are in the best position to recommend a reputable company to help you out.


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