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22.10: Bepushtlik - Biologiya

22.10: Bepushtlik - Biologiya


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Oilaviy portret

( PageIndex {1} ) rasmidagi bu oilaviy portret inson jamiyatlari farzand ko'rishni qadrlashini ko'rsatadi. Darhaqiqat, ko'pchilik uchun ota -ona hayotning muhim maqsadidir. Afsuski, ba'zi odamlar bepushtlik tufayli bu maqsadga erisha olmaydilar.

Bepushtlik nima?

Bepushtlik jinsiy voyaga yetgan odamning tabiiy yo'l bilan ko'payish qobiliyatiga ega emasligi. Ilmiy va tibbiy maqsadlarda, bepushtlik, odatda, kamida bir yil muntazam, himoyalanmagan jinsiy aloqadan so'ng muvaffaqiyatli homiladorlikka erisha olmaslik sifatida tushuniladi. Bepushtlik birlamchi yoki ikkilamchi bo'lishi mumkin. Birlamchi bepushtlik, shaxs hech qachon muvaffaqiyatli homiladorlikka erisha olmagan holatlarga nisbatan qo'llaniladi. Ikkilamchi bepushtlik, bir kishi kamida bir marta muvaffaqiyatli homilador bo'lgan, ammo kamida bir yil davomida boshqasiga erisha olmagan holatlarga nisbatan qo'llaniladi. Bepushtlik - keng tarqalgan muammo. 15 dan 44 yoshgacha bo'lgan amerikalik ayollarning taxminan 10 foizi (6,1 million) homilador bo'lish yoki qolishda qiynaladi.

Bepushtlikning sabablari

Homiladorlik ko'p bosqichli jarayonning natijasidir. Oddiy homiladorlik sodir bo'lishi uchun tuxumdonlardan biridan tuxum chiqishi kerak, tuxum fallop naychasidan o'tishi kerak, sperma tuxumni fallop naychasidan o'tishi bilan urug'lantirishi kerak, keyin urug'langan tuxum joylashtirilishi kerak. bachadonda. Agar ushbu qadamlarning birortasida muammo bo'lsa, bepushtlik paydo bo'lishi mumkin.

Erkak bepushtligining sabablari

Erkaklarning bepushtligi spermatozoidlar kam yoki juda kam bo'lsa yoki spermatozoidlar sog'lom va harakatchan bo'lmaganda va tuxumni urug'lantirish uchun ayol jinsiy yo'li orqali o'ta olmasa sodir bo'ladi. Spermatozoidlarning etarli emasligi yoki harakatlanishining umumiy sababi - varikosel, bu skrotumdagi qon tomirlarining kengayishi. Bu moyaklar haroratini oshirishi va sperma ishlab chiqarishga salbiy ta'sir ko'rsatishi mumkin. Boshqa hollarda, spermatozoid bilan hech qanday muammo yo'q, lekin erkak jinsiy tizimida spermatozoidning chiqishiga to'sqinlik qiladigan blokirovka mavjud.

Erkakning bepushtlik xavfini oshiruvchi omillar orasida spirtli ichimliklarni ko'p iste'mol qilish, giyohvand moddalarni suiiste'mol qilish, sigaret chekish, atrof -muhit zaharlari (masalan, pestitsidlar yoki qo'rg'oshin), ba'zi dorilar, jiddiy kasalliklar (masalan, buyrak kasalligi), saraton uchun nurlanish yoki kimyoterapiya kiradi. Yana bir xavf omil - bu yoshning oshishi. Erkaklarning tug'ish qobiliyati odatda yigirmanchi yillarning o'rtalariga to'g'ri keladi va 40 yoshdan keyin asta-sekin pasayadi, garchi u hech qachon nolga tushmasa ham.

Ayollarning bepushtlik sabablari

Ayollarning bepushtligi odatda ikkita muammodan biri tufayli yuzaga keladi: tuxumdonlar tomonidan yashovchan tuxum ishlab chiqarilmasligi yoki fallop naychalari yoki bachadondagi tizimli muammolar. Ayol bepushtligining eng keng tarqalgan sababi ovulyatsiya bilan bog'liq muammodir. Ovulyatsiya bo'lmasa, urug'lantiriladigan tuxum yo'q. Anovulyatsion tsikllar (ovulyatsiya sodir bo'lmaydigan hayz davrlari) hayz ko'rishning yo'qligi yoki tartibsizligi bilan bog'liq bo'lishi mumkin, lekin hatto muntazam hayz ko'rishi ham turli sabablarga ko'ra anovulyatsion bo'lishi mumkin. Anovulyatsion tsikllarning eng ko'p uchraydigan sababi - polikistik tuxumdon sindromi (PCOS), bu gormonal muvozanatni buzilishiga olib keladi, bu oddiy ovulyatsiyaga xalaqit beradi. Anovulyatsiyaning boshqa nisbatan keng tarqalgan sababi - tuxumdonlarning birlamchi etishmovchiligi. Bunday holatda, tuxumdonlar normal ishlashini to'xtatadi va nisbatan erta yoshda, odatda 40 yoshga to'lgunga qadar hayotiy tuxum ishlab chiqarishni to'xtatadi.

Fallop naychalari yoki bachadon bilan bog'liq tizimli muammolar bepushtlikning kamroq tarqalgan sabablari hisoblanadi. Fallop naychalari endometrioz natijasida bloklanishi mumkin. Yana bir mumkin bo'lgan sabab tos a'zolarining yallig'lanish kasalligi bo'lib, u jinsiy yo'l bilan yuqadigan infektsiyalar fallopiya naychalari yoki boshqa ayol jinsiy a'zolariga tarqalganda yuzaga keladi (rasm (PageIndex{2})). INFEKTSION Fallop naychalarining chandiqlari va tiqilib qolishiga olib kelishi mumkin. Agar tuxum ishlab chiqarilsa va fallop naychalari ishlayotgan bo'lsa va ayolda bachadon miomasi kabi kasallik bo'lsa, bachadonga implantatsiya qilish mumkin emas. Bachadon miomasi-bachadon devorlarida hosil bo'ladigan to'qima va mushaklarning saraton bo'lmagan to'plamlari.

Ayolning bepushtlik xavfini oshiradigan omillarga tamaki chekish, spirtli ichimliklarni haddan tashqari iste'mol qilish, stress, noto'g'ri ovqatlanish, og'ir sport mashg'ulotlari, ortiqcha vazn yoki kam vazn kiradi. Ayollar uchun keksa yoshdagi erkaklarnikiga qaraganda ancha muammoli. Ayol tug'ilishi odatda yigirmanchi yillarning o'rtalariga to'g'ri keladi va 30 yoshdan keyin va 52 yoshida menopauzaga qadar doimiy ravishda pasayadi, shundan keyin tuxumdon tuxum qo'ymaydi. Ayol 35 yoshdan oshgan juftlarning uchdan bir qismi tug'ish muammosiga ega. Keksa ayollarda ko'proq tsikllar anovulyatsiya bo'lishi mumkin va tuxumlar sog'lom bo'lmasligi mumkin.

Bepushtlik sabablarini aniqlash

Er -xotinning bepushtlik sabablarini aniqlash uchun ko'pincha ikkala sherikni ham yuzaga kelishi mumkin bo'lgan muammolarni tekshirib ko'rishni talab qiladi. Sperma sperma soni, shakli va harakatchanligi uchun tekshirilishi mumkin. Agar sperma bilan bog'liq muammolar aniqlansa, moyaklar yoki kanallar bilan bog'liq tizimli muammolarni izlash uchun tibbiy ko'rish kabi qo'shimcha tadqiqotlar o'tkazilishi mumkin.

Tuxumdonlari va bachadoni bo'lgan odamlarda birinchi qadam ovulyatsiya sodir bo'lganligini aniqlashdir. Buni uyda tana haroratini diqqat bilan kuzatib borish (ovulyatsiya vaqtida u biroz ko'tariladi) yoki ko'pchilik dorixonalarda retseptsiz sotiladigan uy ovulyatsiya test to'plamidan foydalanish orqali amalga oshirilishi mumkin. Ovulyatsiya sodir bo'ladimi yoki yo'qmi, qon tekshiruvi yoki tuxumdonlarning ultratovush tekshiruvi yordamida ham aniqlanishi mumkin. Agar ovulyatsiya odatdagidek ro'y bersa, keyingi qadam fallop naychalari va bachadonning rentgenogrammasi bo'lishi mumkin. Reproduktiv tizimning mumkin bo'lgan muammolarini tekshirishning yana bir usuli - laparoskopiya. Ushbu jarrohlik muolajada qorin bo'shlig'iga kichik kesma orqali kichkina kamera qo'yiladi. Bu shifokorga reproduktiv organlarni bevosita tekshirishga imkon beradi.

Bepushtlikni davolash

Ko'pincha bepushtlik muvaffaqiyatli davolanadi. Davolash turi bepushtlik sababiga bog'liq.

Erkak bepushtligini davolash

Sperma ishlab chiqarishga xalaqit beradigan tibbiy muammolar dori-darmonlar yoki normal sperma ishlab chiqarishni qayta tiklashga olib keladigan boshqa choralar bilan davolash mumkin. Agar, masalan, infektsiya sperma ishlab chiqarishga xalaqit bersa, antibiotiklar muammoni hal qilishi mumkin. Agar sperma chiqishda tiqilib qolsa, jarrohlik yo'li bilan tiqilib qolishi mumkin. Shu bilan bir qatorda, sperma uning tanasidan olib tashlanishi va keyin sherigini sun'iy urug'lantirish uchun ishlatilishi mumkin. Ushbu protsedurada sperma bachadonga yuboriladi.

Ayol bepushtligini davolash

Fallop naychalari yoki bachadon miomalarini jarrohlik yo'li bilan to'g'irlash mumkin. Boshqa tomondan, ovulyatsiya muammolari odatda gipofiz yoki tuxumdonlarga ta'sir qiluvchi gormonlar bilan davolanadi. Ovulyatsiyani rag'batlantiruvchi gormonal davolash usullari, odatda, bir vaqtning o'zida bir nechta tuxumning ovulyatsiyasiga olib keladi, shuning uchun egizak, uch karra yoki undan ham ko'p tug'ilish ehtimolini oshiradi. Bir nechta homilaning erta tug'ilishi yoki sog'lig'i va rivojlanishida muammolar bo'lishi xavfi katta. Homiladorlik paytida tug'ruq paytida onaning tug'ilish xavfi katta. Shu sababli, bepushtlikni davolashning bunday turi to'g'risida qaror qabul qilishda bir nechta homilaning paydo bo'lish ehtimolini tortish kerak.

Yordamchi reproduktiv texnologiyalar

Ba'zi bepushtlik holatlari bilan davolanadi yordamchi reproduktiv texnologiyalar (ART). Bu tibbiy muolajalar to'plami bo'lib, unda tuxum va spermatozoidlarni olib tashlanadi va urug'lantirish ehtimolini oshiradi. Urug'lantirish uchun tuxum va sperma fallop naychasidan biriga yuborilishi mumkin in vivo (tanada). Ammo, odatda, tuxum va sperma tanadan tashqarida aralashtiriladi, shuning uchun urug'lanish sodir bo'ladi in vitro (laboratoriyada probirkada yoki idishda). Oxirgi yondashuv rasmda tasvirlangan (PageIndex{3}). Bilan vitro urug'lantirish paytida, urug'lantirilgan tuxumni ayolning bachadoniga joylashtirishdan oldin, embrionga aylanishi mumkin.

ART 35 yoshgacha bo'lgan ayollarda tirik tug'ilish ehtimoli taxminan 40 foizni tashkil qiladi, ammo 35 yoshdan keyin muvaffaqiyatga erishish ehtimoli bor-yo'g'i 20 foizni tashkil qiladi. Ba'zi tadqiqotlarda tug'ma nuqsonlar xavfi o'rtachadan yuqori ekanligini aniqladi. ART protseduralari bilan ishlab chiqarilgan bolalarda, lekin bu ishlatilgan texnologiyalarga emas, balki odatda ota -onaning yoshiga bog'liq bo'lishi mumkin. Bir jinsli juftliklar o'z oilalarini kengaytirish uchun ART jarayonidan foydalanadilar.

Boshqa yondashuvlar

Bepushtlikning ma'lum sabablari va bir jinsli juftliklar uchun boshqa yondashuvlar surrogat ona, homiladorlik tashuvchisi yoki sperma donatsiyasini o'z ichiga oladi.

  • A surrogat ona erkakning sperma va o'z tuxumidan foydalanib homilador bo'lishga rozi bo'lgan ayol. Surrogat va erkak sherikning biologik avlodlari bo'ladigan bola tug'ilganda er -xotinning asrab olishidan voz kechishadi. Surrogatlikni tuxumsiz yoki nosog'lom tuxumli ayollar tanlaydilar. Jiddiy genetik kasallik uchun mutant genni tashuvchi ayol, nuqsonli gen naslga o'tmasligini ta'minlash uchun ushbu variantni tanlashi mumkin.
  • A homiladorlik tashuvchisi - bu juftlikdan transplantatsiya qilingan embrionni qabul qilib, uni muddatiga ko'chirishga rozi bo'lgan ayol. Er-xotinning biologik avlodi bo'ladigan bola tug'ilganda ota-onaga beriladi. Homiladorlik tashuvchisi odatdagi ovulyatsiyasi bo'lgan, lekin bachadoni bo'lmagan yoki sog'lig'ining jiddiy muammosi (masalan, buyrak kasalligi yoki saraton) tufayli homilani xavfsiz tashiy olmaydigan ayollar tomonidan ishlatilishi mumkin. Bu usul odatda gey erkaklar juftliklari tomonidan qo'llaniladi.
  • Sperma donorligi er-xotinning erkak sherigi bepusht bo'lgan yoki ayol erkak sherigisiz homilador bo'lishga intilayotgan hollarda unumdor erkakning spermatozoididan foydalanish (odatda sun'iy urug'lantirish orqali). Lezbiyan er -xotin, ulardan biriga homilador bo'lish va farzand ko'rish uchun hadya qilingan sperma ishlatishi mumkin. Spermatozoidlarni sun'iy urug'lantirish uchun sperma sotib oladigan va saqlaydigan sperma bankidan olish mumkin, yoki erkak do'sti yoki boshqa bir kishi ma'lum bir ayolga sperma berishi mumkin.

Xususiyat: Yangiliklarda inson biologiyasi

Qo'shma Shtatlarda 14 milliondan ortiq odamda polikistik tuxumdon sindromi (PCOS) bor, bu genetik asosga ega bo'lgan bepushtlikning eng keng tarqalgan sababi. PCOS bilan og'rigan bemorlarning ko'pchiligi tuxumdonlarida ko'plab mayda kistalar o'sadi. Kistlar odatda zararli emas, lekin ular gormonal nomutanosiblikka olib keladi, masalan, ta'sirlangan odamlarda testosteronning me'yordan yuqori darajasi. Gormonal nomutanosiblik PCOS bilan bog'liq bepushtlikning asosiy sababidir. Kasallik, shuningdek, endometrium saratoni, yurak kasalligi, yuqori qon bosimi, 2-toifa diabet, astma, semizlik, depressiya va tashvish kabi boshqa jiddiy sog'liq muammolari xavfini oshiradi.

PCOSning tarqalishiga va uning jiddiy potentsial ta'siriga qaramay, yaqin vaqtgacha uning sababi yaxshi tushunilmagan. Bundan tashqari, erta tashxis qo'yish yoki davolashning samarali strategiyalari yo'q edi. Ko'rinib turibdiki, hozir hamma narsa o'zgarib bormoqda. 2016 yilda chop etilgan PCOS bo'yicha tadqiqot adabiyotlarini ko'rib chiqish buzilishning sabablari, tashxisi va davosi haqida yangi tushuncha beradi.

Sharhda keltirilgan tadqiqotlar orasida noinsoniy hayvonlar modellari, jumladan, maymunlar va sichqonlar bo'yicha istiqbolli yangi ish bor. Bir yo'nalishdagi tadqiqot shuni ko'rsatadiki, PCOS homiladorlikning ikkinchi trimestrida homilaga dasturlashtirilishi mumkin. Boshqa bir tadqiqot yo'nalishi shuni ko'rsatadiki, chaqaloqdan olingan sochlar PCOS uchun erta xavf omillari uchun tahlil qilinishi mumkin, garchi PCOS belgilari balog'at yoshiga qadar namoyon bo'lmasa. Bundan tashqari, tadqiqot olimlarga PCOSda rol o'ynagan deb taxmin qilingan genlar turkumini aniqlashga yordam beradi.

PCOS bo'yicha yangi tadqiqot kasallik va uning oqibatlari, jumladan, bepushtlik va hayot uchun xavfli surunkali kasalliklar (yurak kasalliklari va diabet kabi) bilan og'riganlar uchun muhimdir. Umid qilamanki, bunday tadqiqotlar PCOSni erta yoshda tashxislashning yangi usullariga olib keladi, bunda tibbiy aralashuvlar va turmush tarzini tanlash jiddiyroq asoratlarni bartaraf etish uchun ishlatilishi mumkin. Ehtimol, tadqiqot oxir -oqibat PCOS bilan kurashayotgan millionlab odamlarni davolashning yangi va yanada samarali variantlariga olib keladi.

Ko'rib chiqish

  1. Bepushtlik nima? Bepushtlik ilmiy va tibbiy nuqtai nazardan qanday ta'riflanadi?
  2. Er-xotinlarda bepushtlikning necha foizi erkaklarning bepushtligi bilan bog'liq? Ayollarning bepushtligi qancha foizga bog'liq?
  3. Erkak bepushtligining sabablari va xavf omillarini aniqlang.
  4. Ayol bepushtligining sabablari va xavf omillarini aniqlang.
  5. Er -xotinning bepushtlik sabablari qanday aniqlanadi?
  6. Bepushtlik qanday davolanadi?
  7. Bepushtlik yoki uni davolash bilan bog'liq ba'zi ijtimoiy va axloqiy masalalarni muhokama qiling.
  8. Nega rivojlanayotgan mamlakatlarda bepushtlik kam baholangan muammo hisoblanadi?
  9. Erkak va ayolning bepushtlik sabablari o'rtasidagi ikkita o'xshashlikni tasvirlab bering.
  10. To'g'ri yoki noto'g'ri: Allaqachon biologik bolasi bo'lgan odam bepushtlikdan aziyat chekishi mumkin.
  11. To'g'ri yoki noto'g'ri: ART har doim tananing tashqarisida urug'lanishni o'z ichiga oladi.
  12. Erkak va urg'ochi o'rtasidagi farqni yoshning tug'ish qobiliyatiga qanday ta'sir qilishini tushuntiring.
  13. Agar ayolda yashovchan tuxum bo'lmasa, quyida qaysi usul unga va uning sherigiga farzand ko'rishga yordam beradi?
    1. homiladorlik tashuvchisi
    2. surrogat ona
    3. in vitro urug'lantirish
    4. in jonli urug'lantirish
  14. Ovulyatsiyani rag'batlantirish uchun dori-darmonlarni qabul qilish endometrioz tufayli bepushtlik bo'lgan hollarda tug'ilishni yaxshilashga yordam beradi deb o'ylaysizmi? Javobingizni tushuntiring.
  15. Agar sperma namunasida sperma bo'lmasa, nima sabab bo'lishi mumkin?
    1. erkaklar reproduktiv tizimidagi blokirovka
    2. spermatogenezning etishmasligi
    3. PCOS
    4. A va B

22.10: Bepushtlik - Biologiya

MDPI tomonidan nashr etilgan barcha maqolalar butun dunyo bo'ylab ochiq kirish litsenziyasi ostida darhol taqdim etiladi. MDPI tomonidan chop etilgan maqolaning to'liq yoki bir qismini, shu jumladan rasm va jadvallarni qayta ishlatish uchun maxsus ruxsat talab qilinmaydi. Ochiq kirish Creative Common CC BY litsenziyasi ostida chop etilgan maqolalar uchun maqolaning istalgan qismidan asl maqoladan aniq iqtibos keltirilishi sharti bilan ruxsatisiz qayta foydalanish mumkin.

Feature Papers ushbu sohada yuqori ta'sir ko'rsatish uchun muhim salohiyatga ega bo'lgan eng ilg'or tadqiqotlarni ifodalaydi. Xususiy maqolalar ilmiy muharrirlarning shaxsiy taklifi yoki tavsiyanomasiga binoan topshiriladi va nashrdan oldin ekspertlar tomonidan ko'rib chiqiladi.

Xususiy maqola asl tadqiqot maqolasi bo'lishi mumkin, bu ko'pincha bir nechta texnikalar yoki yondashuvlarni o'z ichiga olgan muhim tadqiqot yoki ilmiy sohadagi eng so'nggi yutuqlarni muntazam va aniq yangilab turuvchi keng qamrovli tadqiqot qog'ozi bo'lishi mumkin. adabiyot. Ushbu turdagi qog'oz kelajakdagi tadqiqot yo'nalishlari yoki mumkin bo'lgan ilovalar haqida tasavvur beradi.

Tahrirlovchining tanlovi maqolalari butun dunyodagi MDPI jurnallarining ilmiy muharrirlarining tavsiyalariga asoslangan. Muharrirlar jurnalda yaqinda chop etilgan, mualliflar uchun ayniqsa qiziqarli yoki bu sohada muhim bo'lgan maqolalarning kichik sonini tanlaydilar. Maqsad jurnalning turli tadqiqot yo'nalishlarida chop etilgan eng qiziqarli ishlarning bir qismini taqdim etishdir.


Yer kuni uchun 10 ta hujjatli film

Koronavirus karantini davom etar ekan, butun dunyo bo'ylab Yer kunining 50 yilligi munosabati bilan o'tkaziladigan shaxsiy tadbirlar bekor qilindi. Shunday qilib, biz sizni g'azablantiradigan va ilhomlantiradigan hujjatli filmlar uchun o'z tanlovimizni to'pladik - barchasini uyda translatsiya qilish mumkin.

Va bizda toza havo, suv, oziq-ovqat va yashash joylari borligiga ishonch hosil qilish uchun kurash haqida o'ylash uchun yaxshiroq vaqt yo'q. Borgan sari ko'proq olimlar zaharli kimyoviy moddalarga ta'sir qilish va odamlarning COVID-19 dan o'lish xavfini oshiradigan surunkali kasalliklar o'rtasidagi bog'liqlikni ta'kidlamoqda. Bizning havoda, suvda, oziq -ovqatda va kundalik mahsulotimizda uchraydigan zaharli kimyoviy moddalarga ta'sir qilish immunitetning pasayishi, semirish, astma, diabet, jigar va buyrak kasalliklari bilan bog'liq. Kimyoviy zaharli moddalar keltirib chiqarishi mumkin bo'lgan boshqa kasallik - saraton kasalligidan davolanayotganlar ham himoyasizroqdir. Butun dunyodagi odamlar o'z hayotlari uchun kurashayotganda, biz hammamiz xavfsiz mahsulotlar, toza suv va sog'lom oziq -ovqatga ega bo'lishini ta'minlash uchun kurashamiz.

Shunday qilib, ilhom olaylik! Mana, Er kuni televizorda sizni kuldirish, yig'lash va baqirish uchun hujjatli filmlar uchun o'nta tanlovimiz.

Plastmassa hikoyasi (2019)

Story of Stuff jamoasidan, Plastik haqida hikoya Televizion debyutini bugun Discovery Channel (AQSh) da 2 ET/PT da amalga oshiradi va DiscoveryGo oqim xizmatida allaqachon mavjud. Bu film plastik ifloslanish inqirozini o'rganadi va bu nafaqat sayyoramiz sog'lig'iga, balki unda yashaydigan odamlarning sog'lig'iga qanday ta'sir qilishini ham ko'rsatadi. Ishlab chiqarishdan tortib chiqindigacha plastik bizni ftalatlar va BPA kabi zaharli kimyoviy moddalarga ta'sir qilishi mumkin.

Zaharli go'zallik (2019)

Toksik go'zallik "Agar keyingi katta kimyoviy halokat bizning ichimizda sodir bo'lsa nima bo'ladi?" Olimlar, huquqshunoslar, advokatlar, tartibga soluvchilar, siyosatchilar, dinamik ma'lumot tarqatuvchi, omon qolganlar va hayotini yo'qotgan ayollarga eksklyuziv kirish imkoniga ega bo'lgan holda, u Jonson va Jonson va da'vogarlarga, vaqt bilan poygada adolat uchun kurashayotgan ayollarga qarshi jamoaviy da'voni davom ettiradi. halokatli kasallik bilan.

Haddan tashqari yuk: Amerika va#8217s toksik sevgi hikoyasi (2019)

Oila qurishdan oldin, sanoat kimyoviy distribyutorining qizi Souzi Istman, tanadagi toksinlar miqdorini bilish uchun safarga chiqadi va u yoki boshqa biror kishi ularni o'zgartirish uchun qo'lidan keladimi -yo'qligini o'rganadi. Soozi hozirgina Amerikada tug'ilgan har bir chaqaloqda yuzlab sintetik toksinlar borligini va hukumat va kimyoviy korporatsiyalar fuqarolar va iste'molchilarni himoya qilish uchun ozgina harakat qilishini bilib oldi. Dunyoga mashhur shifokorlar va atrof-muhit bo'yicha etakchilarning ko'rsatmalari, olimlar va siyosatchilar bilan intervyular va kundalik amerikaliklarning hikoyalari yordamida Souzi qanday qilib kimyoviy moddalar bilan haddan tashqari yuklanganligimizni ochib beradi va agar biz o'z ta'sirimizni nazorat qilish uchun nima qila olsak. Xususiyatlar bizning "Mind Store" aksiyasi direktori Mayk Sxeyd.

Iblis Biz Biling (2018)

Biz bilgan Iblis kimyoviy kompaniyalar PFAS kimyoviy moddalari o'nlab yillar davomida zaharli ekanligini bilgani, lekin baribir ularni ichimlik suvi va bizning uylarimizni ifloslantirgani haqida hikoya qiladi. Kimyo sanoati yuristining yordami bilan G'arbiy Virjiniya aholisi bir guruh DuPont kompaniyasini ularni zaharlagani uchun sudga berdi. Ushbu hujjatli film keyinchalik filmda namoyish etilgan haqiqiy voqeani aytib berish uchun intervyu va qonunni buzuvchi videolarni to'playdi Qorong'u suvlar bosh rolda Mark Ruffalo.

Nopok pul – Point Comfort

2 -mavsumda, "Iflos pul" Netflix hujjatli serialining 6 -qismi, Texasning kichik bir shahri aholisi, toksik kimyoviy moddalar o'z jamiyatiga zarar etkaza boshlaguncha, katta plastmassa ishlab chiqaradigan zavodni kutib olishga tayyor edi.

STINK! (2015)

STINK! kinorejissyor Jon Uilanning qizi uchun buyurtma bergan yomon hidli pijamada qanday kimyoviy moddalar yashiringanini aniqlashga intilishi ortidan. Yo'lda u xushbo'y hidli kimyoviy moddalarga hayot uchun xavfli allergiya bilan og'rigan o'smir Brendon Silk va sog'liqni saqlash himoyachilari, shu jumladan, kechroq Safer Chemicals, Sog'lom oilalar asoschisi direktori Endi Igrejas bilan uchrashadi. U hatto Amerika Kimyo Kengashining eng yaxshi lobbisi Cal Dooley bilan uchrashadi. Nyu -York Tayms buni “ yurakdan … sezgir va asabiy deb nomladi. ”

Inson tajribasi (2013)

Shon Penn tomonidan hikoya qilingan, Inson tajribasi har kuni ishlatiladigan mahsulotlarda, uyimizda va har birimizda tekshirilmagan, tartibga solinmagan minglab kimyoviy moddalar borligi haqidagi dahshatli haqiqat pardasini ko'taradi. Bir vaqtning o'zida kasallik darajasi oshib bormoqda: saratondan bepushtlikka qadar hamma narsa shifokorlar va tadqiqotchilar ko'rmagan darajada namoyon bo'lmoqda. Bu haqiqat, rejissyorlar, bu kimyoviy moddalar ularning hayoti keskin va og'riqli ta'sirlangan deb hisoblaydigan odamlarning shaxsiy hikoyalarini kuzatib, o'rgangan haqiqatdir. Faollar kuchli va daromadli kimyo sanoati bilan to‘qnash kelganda tomoshabinlarni oldingi safga olib chiqadigan film bugungi kunda insoniyat duch kelayotgan eng katta kimyoviy tahdid neftning to‘kilishi yoki yadroviy halokat emas, balki shunday bo‘lishi mumkinligini ko‘rsatadi. sizning oshxonangizda.

Toxic Hot Seat (2013)

Kimyoviy yong'inga qarshi vositalar hamma joyda mavjud. Bizning mebellarimiz. Bizning uylarimiz. Bizning tanamiz. Shunga qaramay, ular olovni to'xtatmaydilar. Ammo ular bizni kasal qilganday tuyuladi. Toksik issiq o'rindiq pul, siyosat va hokimiyat oʻrtasidagi bogʻliqlikni chuqur koʻrib chiqadi – oʻt oʻchiruvchilar, onalar, jurnalistlar, olimlar, siyosatchilar va faollardan iborat jasur bir guruh, ular taʼkidlaganlarini fosh qilish uchun kurashayotganda, yolgʻonning soyali kampaniyasi boʻlgan. qariyb 40 yil davomida Amerika uylari va tanalarida zaharli meros.

Oqim ostida yashash (2010)

Pastki oqimda yashash ekolog va saraton kasalligidan omon qolgan, Ph.D Sandra Steingraberning mashhur kitobiga asoslangan. Film Sandraning bir yil davomida Shimoliy Amerika bo'ylab sayohat qilib, saraton va uning atrof-muhit bilan bog'liq aloqalari haqida sukunatni buzishga harakat qilganini kuzatib boradi. Muntazam saraton tekshiruvidan so'ng, Sandra xavotirli natijalarni oladi va tibbiy noaniqlik davriga o'tadi. Shunday qilib, biz Sandra bilan ikkita sayohatni boshlaymiz: uning saratonga qarshi shaxsiy kurashi va saraton kasalligining oldini olish bo'yicha inson huquqlarining shoshilinch muammosiga e'tibor qaratish uchun ommaviy izlanish. Ammo Sandra sayohatda bo'lgan yagona odam emas - u kurashayotgan kimyoviy moddalar ham harakatda. Biz bu ko'rinmas toksinlarga ergashamiz, chunki ular Shimoliy Amerikaning eng go'zal joylariga ko'chib ketishadi. Biz bu kimyoviy moddalar tanamizga qanday kirganini va ichkariga kirganimizda, olimlar, ular saraton kasalligini keltirib chiqarishi mumkinligiga ishonishadi.

Moviy vinil (2002)

Ota-onasining Long-Aylenddagi uyini polivinilxlorid (PVX) bilan "qayta joylashtirish" qaroriga shubha bilan qaragan Peabody mukofoti sovrindori, kinorejissyor Judit Xelfand, materialning toksik ta'sirining haqiqatini kashf etishga kirishdi. avtomobillardan kompyuterlar, tibbiy asbob-uskunalar va bolalar o'yinchoqlarigacha. Muloyim kun tartibi va qo'lida bir parcha ko'k vinil siding bilan Helfand va uning direktori Luizianadagi vinil ishlab chiqarish poytaxtiga sayohat qilishadi, Kaliforniyadagi "yashil" quruvchidan yordam so'rashadi va uzoq masofalarga sayohat qilishadi. Venetsiya, Italiya-bu erda PVX ishlab chiqaruvchi kompaniyaning 31 rahbarlari o'ta muhim fitna ishida odam o'ldirish uchun sudni kutishmoqda.

Savdo sirlari (2001)

Kimyo kompaniyalari amerikalik ishchilar va Amerika jamoatchiligidan kimyoviy moddalarning sog'liq va xavfsizlikka ta'siri haqidagi to'liq haqiqatni saqlab qolish uchun kimyoviy kompaniyalar qanday hamkorlik qilgani haqida ikki soatlik maxsus hisobot. So'nggi 50 yil ichida sodir bo'lgan kimyoviy inqilob minglab sun'iy kimyoviy moddalarni ishlab chiqardi, ular xalq salomatligi va xavfsizligiga ta'siri uchun sinovdan o'tkazilmagan. Hisobot hech qachon chop etilmagan hujjatlarga va kimyoviy moddalar inson organizmiga qanday ta'sir qilishini o'rganayotgan tarixchilar, olimlar va shifokorlar bilan suhbatlarga asoslangan.


Kirish

Bepushtlik - reproduktiv tizim kasalligi bo'lib, 12 oy yoki undan ko'p vaqt davomida muntazam himoyalanmagan jinsiy aloqadan keyin klinik homiladorlikka erishilmasligi bilan tavsiflanadi. va boshqalar., 2014). Bu er -xotinlarning taxminan 10-15% ga, hatto dunyoning ba'zi mintaqalarida 30% gacha ta'sir qiladi (Inhorn & Patrizio, 2015). Erkaklarning bepushtligi global farzandsizlik holatlarining yarmidan ko'piga hissa qo'shgan bo'lsa-da, bepushtlik ayolning ijtimoiy yuki bo'lib qolmoqda, chunki ilmiy adabiyotlar va boshqa ommaviy axborot vositalari jinsiy tabiatdan tashqari ko'payishning erkak komponentini uzoq vaqt davomida e'tiborsiz qoldirgan (Cassatella). va boshqalar., 2013 Petok, 2015). So'nggi yillarda erkaklar bepushtligi butun dunyo bo'ylab yosh sog'lom erkaklar o'rtasida sperma sifatining pasayishi, jamoatchilikning kengroq xabardorligi, psixologik salomatlik va aniq aniqlashga urinishlarni talab qiluvchi yordamchi reproduktsiya usullarining (ART) doimiy rivojlanishi tufayli erkaklarning bepushtligiga qiziqish ortib bormoqda. tashxis, ayniqsa idiopatik bepusht juftliklar va ART tsiklidan o'tganlar uchun (Milewski) va boshqalar., 2013 Alrabeeah va boshqalar., 2014 yil Stuppiya va boshqalar., 2015 ).

Erkaklar bepushtligi tibbiyot fanining tez rivojlanayotgan sohasi bo'ldi. Ko'p sonli erkaklarning bepushtligi, jumladan, patogenez, individual terapevtik protokollar, molekulyar o'zgarishlar va ijtimoiy ta'sirlar haqidagi yangi tushuncha katta qiziqish uyg'otdi. va boshqalar., 2015). Erkaklarning bepushtlik tibbiyotiga bag'ishlangan jurnallar soni ortib bormoqda va nashr etilgan maqolalarning umumiy soni har yili o'sib bormoqda. 2014 yil oxiriga kelib, PubMed ma'lumotlar bazasida "erkak bepushtlik" va "odam" tibbiy atamalari (MeSH) sarlavhasi bo'yicha tasniflangan 31770 ta maqola bor edi. Ushbu maqolalardan 1650 ta maqolada klinik tadqiqotlar, shu jumladan 728 tasodifiy nazorat ostida o'tkazilgan tadqiqotlar, 5309 ta sharhli maqolalar va 149 ta meta-tahlillar haqida xabar berilgan. Bundan tashqari, ushbu tadqiqot sohasida eksponensial o'sish kuzatildi: ma'lumotlar bazasiga 1960 yildan atigi 1 ta tadqiqot kiritilgan bo'lsa, 1990 yilga kelib 574 ta tadqiqot mavjud bo'lsa, 2012 yilga kelib bu ko'rsatkich 866 taga ko'tarildi. Shunga qaramay, erkaklar bepushtligi bo'yicha tadqiqotlar samaradorligi oshishiga qaramay. , Erkaklarning bepushtligi bo'yicha global ilmiy ishlab chiqarish bo'yicha tizimli ma'lumotlarni to'plash uchun bir nechta urinishlar bo'lgan. Adabiyotda mavjud bo'lgan katta hajmdagi ma'lumotlarni baholash uchun mos vosita ko'plab ilmiy fanlarda ilmiy ishlab chiqarish va tadqiqot holatini tekshirish uchun keng qo'llaniladigan bibliometrik usuldir (Daly). va boshqalar., 2015 Rondanelli va Perna, 2015). Hozircha faqat Gonsales-Alkaid va boshqalar. (2008) bibliometrik usul yordamida reproduktiv biologiyada hammualliflik tarmoqlari va institutsional hamkorlik modellarini tahlil qildi. Aleksandr-Benavent va boshqalar. (2015b) klinik reproduktiv tibbiyot tadqiqotlari tendentsiyalarini tahlil qildi. Hozirgi kunga qadar bibliometrik tahlil asosida erkaklarning bepushtlik haqidagi ma'lumotlarini tizimli baholash amalga oshirilmagan. Erkak bepushtligini tadqiq qilish sohasining ahamiyatini hisobga olgan holda, erkak bepushtligini global tizimli tahlil qilish zarur.

Bizning tadqiqotimiz erkaklar bepushtligini global darajada o'rganishga qaratilgan birinchi bibliometrik tahlildir. Ushbu tadqiqotning maqsadi Web of Science (WoS) ma'lumotlar bazasida mavjud bo'lgan 1995-2014 yillardagi erkaklar bepushtligini ilmiy o'rganish bo'yicha chuqur tahlil qilish edi. va texnologik yutuqlar. Ushbu keng qamrovli tahlil (i) nashrlar sonining ortib borayotgan tendentsiyasini va maqolalar soni va global yalpi ichki mahsulot (YaIM) o'rtasidagi bog'liqlikni baholaydi (ii) asosiy jurnallarni, samarali mamlakatlarni, samarali mualliflarni, samarali institutlarni va xalqaro hamkorlikni aniqlaydi va (iii) ) kalit so'zlar chastotalarini tahlil qilish orqali mavzular toifalari bo'yicha mahsulotlarning taqsimlanishini va dolzarb masalalarni aniqlaydi. Biz takomillashtirilgan bibliometrik usullardan foydalangan holda erkaklar tug'ilishini o'rganishdagi tadqiqot holati va tendentsiyalarini tasavvur qilishga harakat qildik.


Muhokama

Ushbu ish hind echki mtDNA xilma -xilligining birinchi muhim tahlilini taqdim etadi va bu muhim mintaqadagi echki zotlarining genetik tuzilishi haqida ma'lumot beradi va shu tariqa ularning genetik tarixi to'g'risida tushuncha beradi.

Hind echkilarining mtDNA ketma -ketligi juda xilma -xillikni namoyish etdi va qazilma qoldiqlarga nisbatan hisoblangan TMRCA 103,000 dan 143,000 gacha yoki 201,000 dan 280,000 yilgacha bo'lgan. Bu raqam, Luikart va boshqalar ta'kidlaganidek. (2001) butun dunyo bo'ylab ma'lumotlar to'plami uchun, taxminan 10 000 yil avval echkilarning uyga topshirilgan sanasidan ancha eski. Ularning 201,380 dan 281,932 yilgacha bo'lgan ko'rsatkichi mtDNA sitoxrom b genining uchinchi pozitsiyasidagi o'zgarishlardan kelib chiqqan. Ular turli xil DNK namunalarini qo'lladilar va shu tariqa ularning hisob -kitoblari qisman mustaqil edi, garchi bir xil fotoalbom yozuvlarini kalibrlash nuqtasi ishlatilgan bo'lsa ham. Ikkita baho bir -biriga mos keladi.

TMRCA eng tez-tez uchraydigan nasllar soni 35000 yildan 69000 yilgacha, mutatsiyaning bir xil tezligidan foydalangan holda va qo'y echkilarining ajralish vaqtidagi noaniqlik va of standart (namuna olish) xatosi hisobga olingan. Bu davrlar, noaniqliklarga qaramay, uy sharoitidan ancha eski. To'rtta tushuntirish mumkin: (1) TMRCA hisob-kitobi hisob-kitoblardagi xatolar tufayli 3,5 yoki undan ko'p koeffitsientga juda eski bo'lishi mumkin, (2) xonakilashtirish arxeologik ma'lumotlarda aniqlanganidan oldinroq boshlangan bo'lishi mumkin yoki (3) bir nechta tegishli nasl -nasab va shu tariqa 35000 yildan ko'proq vaqt oldin mavjud bo'lgan o'zgarishlarni o'z ichiga oladi, yoki (4) mtDNK tanlovni diversifikatsiya qilishi mumkin edi, shuning uchun betaraflik faraziga asoslangan hisob -kitoblar haqiqiy emas. Bizning TMRCA Luikart va boshqalarning A avlodining kengayish vaqtiga zid kelmasligini ta'kidlaymiz. (2001), chunki bu mualliflar ularning kengayish vaqtini 10 000 yil deb taxmin qilishgan va hisoblamaganlar.

Hisoblashdagi xatolar ishonchli tushuntirish beradimi? Xatoning to'rtta manbasi bo'lishi mumkin: echkilardagi xilma-xillik, qo'ylar va echkilar o'rtasidagi mutatsiyali o'zgarishlar soni, qo'y-echkilar ajralish vaqti va tanlov.

Bizning taxminimiz 10,0/457 bp o'rtacha juftlik farqlari Luikart va boshqalarning 10,9/481 bp bilan yaxshi mos keladi. (A toifasi uchun) va shuning uchun katta xato bo'lishi mumkin emas.

Vigilant va boshqalar tomonidan ishlatiladigan bir nechta xitlar uchun sozlash. (1991) inson mtDNKi uchun 166,000 dan 249,000 yilgacha va Tamura va Nei (1993) tomonidan 4-6 Myr shimpanzalari va odamlarning ajralish vaqtiga asoslangan 80,000 dan 480,000 yilgacha bo'lgan TMRCA ga olib keldi. Inson mtDNK TMRCA uchun butun ketma-ketlikdagi xilma-xillikka va 5-Myr divergentsiya vaqtiga asoslangan yaqinda taxmin qilinganidek, 171,500 ± 50,000 yilni tashkil etdi (Ingman va boshq. 2000), shuning uchun nazorat mintaqasida takroriy mutatsiyani sozlashning ushbu usullari ishonchlilikka olib keladi. vaqt hisob -kitoblari.

Qo'y va echkining ajralish vaqti qazilma qoldiqlaridan (Savage va Russell 1983, Carroll 1988) aniqlangan va 10 000 yillik xonakilashtirish vaqtiga to'g'ri keladigan TMRCAga olib kelishi uchun taxminan 1,4 Myr bo'lishi kerak edi. Fotoalbom tanishuvlari shunchalik xato bo'lishi ehtimoldan yiroq emas. Xuddi shunday, xonakilashtirish birinchi arxeologik yozuvlardan bir necha yuz yoki hatto bir necha ming yil oldin boshlangan bo'lsa-da, paleolit ​​davrida 35 000 yil oldin bo'lgan vaqt ishonchli emas.

Odamlarning mtDNA xilma -xilligini oshirish uchun, asosan, uy sharoitidan keyingi 10 000 yil ichida kutilganidan ko'ra ko'proq xilma -xillikka olib kelishi mumkin edi, lekin fermerlarni qiziqtiradigan fenotipik xususiyatlarni tanlash bunday o'sishga olib kelishi mumkin bo'lgan ishonchli usul yo'q. mtDNA o'zgarishida. Shunday qilib, biz xulosa qilamizki, uy sharoitida mtDNKning xilma -xilligini o'z ichiga oladigan bir qancha echkilar jalb qilingan.

Ko'rib chiqilgan uy echkilarining barcha nasllari bitta monofil guruhga bo'linadi, ular barcha mavjud echki ketma -ketligidan farq qiladi (4 -rasm). Shuning uchun uy echkilariga hissa qo'shadigan nasl-nasablar noma'lum populyatsiyadan olingan bo'lib, ular hozirda kamdan-kam uchraydigan yoki yo'q bo'lib ketgan. Shuning uchun bu ajdodlarni o'rganish uchun yovvoyi echkilar va arxeologik namunalarni qo'shimcha tekshirish kerak.


Suhbat: genetik test

"RNK, xromosomalar (DNK), oqsillar va ba'zi metabolitlarni klinik maqsadlarda irsiy kasalliklarga bog'liq genotiplar, mutatsiyalar, fenotiplar yoki karyotiplarni aniqlash uchun tahlil qilish" (Xoltsman va Watson 1997) http dan olingan ta'rifdir. ://www.aapa.org/gandp/genetictest.html va hech qanday tarzda Holtzman & Watson bilan bog'liq emas, 1997 "Prognozli genetik test: asosiy tadqiqotlardan klinik amaliyotgacha." Uni o'zgartiring.

Jamoat salomatligi genomikasi milliy byurosi genetik testlarni baholash uchun qimmatli manbalarni sanab o'tadi. http://www.cdc.gov/genomics/gTesting.htm Lid6 17:36, 2006 yil 15 sentyabr (UTC)

Bu A sinf sahifasi emas edi, shuning uchun men uni B darajaga tushirdim, faqat bitta kasallik mavjud (oxirgi vandalizmni hisobga olmaganda). Hayes 22:10, 2006 yil 21 sentyabr (UTC)

Ko'p sonli kasalliklarni tekshirish mumkin:

"Ota -ona odatda natijani faqat ijobiy bo'lsa oladi"

Bu test kasallik uchun ijobiy yoki ijobiy degan ma'noni anglatadimi?-75.19.84.167 03:12, 8 dekabr 2006 (UTC)

Genetika tekshiruvi is "the analysis of human DNA, RNA, chromosomes, proteins, and certain metabolites in order to detect heritable disease-related genotypes, mutations, phenotypes, or karyotypes for clinical purposes " (Holtzman & Watson 1997). It can provide information about a person's genes and chromosomes throughout life.

Genetic tests are performed on a sample of blood, hair, skin, amniotic fluid (the fluid that surrounds a fetus during pregnancy), or other tissue. For example, a medical procedure called a buccal smear uses a small brush or cotton swab to collect a sample of cells from the inside surface of the cheek. The sample is sent to a laboratory where technicians look for specific changes in chromosomes, DNA, orThe results of genetic tests are not always straightforward, which often makes them challenging to interpret and explain. When interpreting test results, healthcare professionals consider a person’s medical history, family history, and the type of genetic test that was done.

No word is said on how the laboratory actually looks for modification in the DNA. shouldn't the words PCR and FISH appear somewhere in the article ? XApple (talk) 18:41, 25 November 2007 (UTC)

Here's a start for, targeted mutation nanalysis, linkage analysis and prenatal testing which should be covered in the article[1],

  • Any WikiPedia entry should be neutral towards the issue discussed. Both sides should have equal space.
  • What diseases are tested for? 93.161.107.14 (talk) —Preceding undated comment added 20:59, 27 November 2009 (UTC).

Thanks for the report. It does look like this is a copyvio (sometimes it's not—the other website has copied from Wikipedia). However in this case the material was dumped into the article on 24 February 2010 in these two edits by Angelliaaaa (talk · contribs) who has made no other edits. I do not have time to deal with it at the moment, but someone should confirm and work out what to do. It might be argued that material from www.ornl.gov is reusable here (I do not know), but if that were true, and if we wanted to use it, we must acknowledge the usage. Johnuniq (talk) 06:26, 2 February 2011 (UTC) I have just rewritten the problematic text to paraphrase rather than be a simple copy-and-paste. Most of it was redundant to material elsewhere in the article, which I was in the process of cleaning up anyway. -- Beland (talk) 23:10, 3 November 2013 (UTC)

When I merged in Gene Diagnostics, the "Specific diseases" section in this article got a lot of material that doesn't particularly need to be in this article. I would suggest moving the specifics for each disease to the linked article for that disease, and just leaving the list of links here. I expect there will be many hundreds of genetic diseases with tests when we finish documenting. -- Beland (talk) 23:52, 3 November 2013 (UTC)

Is the following news item (or related) worth mentioning in the article - or not?

In any case - Enjoy! :) Drbogdan (talk) 13:21, 5 June 2014 (UTC)

YO'Q It is blatantly false. maybe the first time for nextgen whole genome sequencing used to diagnose something on the fly like this. DNA tests have been used clinically for years - the blurb as written is embarassingly wrong. I don't have time to read and digest the source right now and check others - even the NY Times can be wrong on "first" things sometimes. Jytdog (talk) 13:25, 5 June 2014 (UTC) @Jytdog - Thanks for your reply - no problem whatsoever - maybe this can be all sorted out at some better opportunity - in any case - Thanks again - and Enjoy! :) Drbogdan (talk) 13:42, 5 June 2014 (UTC)

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Rated "top" due to medical and public interest/media coverage. - tameeria 23:53, 18 February 2007 (UTC)

Last edited at 23:53, 18 February 2007 (UTC). Substituted at 15:55, 29 April 2016 (UTC)

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Can it be described that genetic testing could be used for partner selection purposes (New eugenics) ? The idea here is that online dating services could be used to share genetic testing results (whole genome or whole exome sequence) which can then be used to see whether both partners are compatible (ensuring that genetic diseases have a very small chance of occurring on children of that couple, if they were to form a couple at all). This can be determined through the principles established by Mendel (see Mendelian inheritance). So basically, a sort of IVF/PGD approach, but then focusing on the genetic makeup of the partners, rather then examining the genetics of the embryo, . Perhaps it can be further looked into and dscribed at the page. --Genetics4good (talk) 10:55, 28 October 2020 (UTC)


Muhokama

We have here analyzed the role of CTCF during male germ cell development. Conditional inactivation of the Ctcf gene in pre-leptotene spermatocytes drastically depleted CTCF protein levels in spermatocytes and spermatids and resulted in impaired spermiogenesis and infertility. Elongated spermatids in Ctcf-cKO mice showed aberrant chromatin compaction and manchette formation, whereas mature sperm displayed abnormal head and tail structures, and loss of histone retention. Thus, CTCF has an important role in the formation of mature germ cells.

Gene expression analysis, using RNA microarrays, identified a large number of genes that were down-regulated in the testis in Ctcf-cKO mice. A majority of the down-regulated genes were expressed in round spermatids, many of them contributing to the structural organization of spermatozoa in wild-type mice. We found that a large majority of the genes that were down-regulated in spermatids in Ctcf-cKO mice, did not have CTCF bound to their promoters or enhancers in spermatids in wild-type mice, and of the genes that had CTCF bound to their promoters or enhancers in spermatids in wild-type mice, only 13% (for both cases) were down-regulated in Ctcf-cKO mice. We therefore conclude that in a majority of cases, the observed changes in gene expression Ctcf-cKO mice, is likely to be caused by aberrant chromatin organization in mutant spermatids.

DNA compaction during spermiogenesis is dependent on the replacement of histones with sperm-specific protamines 4,24 . Haploinsufficiency for the Prm1 gene in mice affects sperm head and tail morphology, as well as chromatin compaction, in spermatozoa isolated from the cauda epididymis, resulting in infertility 7,8 . We found the levels of PRM1 in spermatozoa to be sharply reduced in spermatozoa from Ctcf-cKO mice, whereas the levels of PRM2 appeared to be unaffected, resulting in a changed PRM1:PRM2 ratio. Prm1 transcription levels were unaffected in the Ctcf-cKO mice, thus suggesting a post-transcriptional regulation of protamine deposition, as suggested for the weak immunolabaleling pattern of PRM1 on Ctcf-cKO testis sections. The similarities in the phenotypes seen for spermatozoa in Ctcf-cKO mice and PRM1 haploinsufficient mice, suggest that a reduced expression of PRM1 in Ctcf-cKO spermatozoa affects chromatin compaction, and as a consequence also manchette organization, sperm head and tail formation.

The sperm count in the cauda epididymis of Ctcf-cKO mice was reduced by approximately 90% relative to the situation in wild-type mice, whereas the sperm count in haploinsufficient PRM1 mice was reduced by approximately 35% 7 . The further reduced sperm count in Ctcf-cKO mice, compared to haploinsufficient PRM1 mice, could be a result of the lower PRM1 levels observed in Ctcf-cKO mice, relative to the situation in haploinsufficient PRM1 mice. Alternatively, the drastically reduced sperm count in Ctcf-cKO mice could result from the down-regulation of genes that take part in the structural organization of elongated spermatids and spermatozoa, for example H1fnt, Hook1, Spem1, Spata16 27,28,29,30,31 . Thus the observed reduced expression of these genes in spermatids is likely to add to the aberrant organization of spermatozoa in Ctcf-cKO mice.

A direct role of CTCF in histone retention on specific DNA sequences in mature mouse sperm has been suggested by the presence of nucleosomes at CTCF binding motifs in mature sperm 9 and by the presence of CTCF on promoters in round spermatids, many of which show histone retention in mature sperm 18 . Core histones have been immunolocalized to the periphery of the mature mouse sperm nucleus 47 while histone H4 and the testis specific histone H2B (TH2B) have been immunolocalized to the center of the sperm nucleus, overlapping with the DAPI-rich chromocenter 9 . Furthermore, the presence of all the five canonical histones in mature sperm has been detected by mass spectrometry 48 . We analyzed if CTCF depletion would impair histone retention in mature sperm, using a mouse strain expressing a nuclear encoded histone H2B-mCherry fusion protein 32 , this approach allowed us to monitor histone retention in mature sperm without the need of permeabilization and altering sperm structure to allow histone detection using antibodies. We found that while the histone H2B-mCherry fusion protein preferentially localized to the posterior region of the sperm head in wild-type mice, a majority (56%) of the sperm isolated from Ctcf-cKO/H2B-mCherry mice did not display a histone H2B-mCherry signal. Thus, CTCF depletion results in an accelerated loss of histone from chromatin in nuclei of mature sperm. CTCF is the only transcription factor that has been shown to produce well-positioned nucleosomes around its DNA binding sites 49 . This property could be important to retain specific histone variants during nucleosome replacement in elongating spermatids. Furthermore, a recent model proposes that resistance to load transition proteins prior to protamine deposition may be mediated by a DNA-binding protein that recognize unmethylated DNA sequences 10 , thus the ability of CTCF to bind preferentially to its unmethylated DNA-binding motif 50,51 makes CTCF a strong candidate to contribute to histone retention in elongating spermatids. Histone retention in mature sperm has been have been suggested to be a mechanism to transfer epigenetic memory from the sperm chromatin to the embryo 9,10,11,52,53 , thus our mouse model provides an opportunity to assay the effects of histone retention in mature sperm.

CTCF ha been shown to act as a global regulator of chromatin organization in somatic cells 15,17 . Brother of Regulator of Imprinting Sites (BORIS) arose from a gene duplication of Ctcf during early evolution in amniotes and its physiological expression is restricted to male germ cells and aberrantly expressed in some cancer cells 54,55 . Both proteins are expressed throughout spermatogenesis of mammals, although the detailed expression pattern of BORIS is still debated 18,21,55 . Tahlili BORIS-KO mice has discovered BORIS to be dispensable for mice fertility, revealing only a small reduction in the number of round spermatids 56 . We show here that Ctcf-cKO mice display infertility, a drastic reduction of testis weight, low mature sperm counts, severe structural defects in elongated spermatids and mature sperm, and down-regulation of genes in spermatids required for formation of sperm. Therefore CTCF, but not BORIS, contribute in a critical way to sperm fertility in male mice.


Staff

My main research interests include pathomechanisms of cell-cell interactions in the inflamed testes and epididymis leading to infertility. Here, investigations on the host-pathogen interaction as well as experimental approaches to improve therapies are in the focus.

Another research area investigates the phenotype and function of testicular macrophages and mechanisms of the cytokin MIF.

Contact details:
Prof. Dr. Andreas Meinhardt,
Institute for Anatomy and Cell Biology,
Justus-Liebig-Universität Giessen, Aulweg 123, D-35392 Gießen, Germany
Phone: +49 641 9947024
Fax: +49 641 9947029

Dr. Jörg Klug

Senior Lecturer

Qo'shimcha ma'lumot:

  • Molecular genetics studies on apolipoproteins (Münster 1985-1988)
  • Molecular genetics of the estrogen receptor (Galway / Republic of Ireland 1988-1990)
  • Work on general and steroid hormone-regulated transcription as well as on secretoglobins (Marburg 1990-2001)
  • Investigations on the "Most Interesting Factor" (Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor MIF) (Gießen since 2001)
  • H-Index = 17 (2017)
  • Co-direction of the mobile laboratory for pupils and the public "Science Bridge" (since 2006)
  • Commitment to the umbrella organization Association for Biology, Life Sciences and Biomedicine in Germany (VBIO)

Contact details:
Institute for Anatomy and Cell Biology, Aulweg 123, D-35392 Gießen, Germany
Phone: +49 641 99 47157
Fax: +49 641 99 47049

Contact details:
Institute for Anatomy and Cell Biology, Aulweg 123, D-35392 Gießen, Germany
Phone: +49 641 99 47164
Fax: +49 641 99 47169

Dr. Sudhanshu Bhushan

Contact details:
Institute for Anatomy and Cell Biology, Aulweg 123, D-35392 Gießen, Germany
Phone: +49 641 99 47033 office 47034 lab
Fax: +49 641 99 47049

Dr. Monika Fijak

My research focuses on immunopathology of testicular inflammation and possible therapeutic interventions in a model of experimental autoimmune orchitis (EAO) in mice and rats. EAO is a rodent model of, which reproduces immunopathological changes found also in human testicular biopsies of non-infectious origin.

Major research interests:

  • Reproductive immunology
  • Testicular inflammation
  • Testosterone as immunosuppressive factor in testicular inflammation
  • Role of immunological factors (cytokines, immune cells, auto-antibodies) and hormones in the development and pathogenesis of experimental autoimmune orchitis (EAO) in rodents
  • Relevance of galectins in testicular inflammation
  • Diagnostic biomarkers of testicular inflammatory processes
  • Gender-specific influence of testosterone on Foxp3 transcription factor regulation in regulatory T cells

Contact details:
Institute for Anatomy and Cell Biology, Aulweg 123, D-35392 Gießen, Germany
Phone: +49 641 99 47032 office 47034 lab
Fax: +49 641 99 47049

Julia Bender

Contact details:

Institute for Anatomy and Cell Biology, Aulweg 123, D-35392 Gießen, Germany

Phone: +49 641 99 47033/41689 office 47034 lab

Suada Fröhlich

Contact details:
Institute for Anatomy and Cell Biology, Aulweg 123, D-35392 Gießen, Germany

Phone: +49 641 99 47032/47042 office 47034 lab

Artem Kepsch


Contact details:
Institute for Anatomy and Cell Biology, Aulweg 123, D-35392 Gießen, Germany
Tel: +49 641 99 47033 office 47034 lab
Fax: +49 641 99 47049


Contact details:
Institute for Anatomy and Cell Biology, Aulweg 123, D-35392 Gießen, Germany
Tel: +49 641 99 47032/47042 office 47034 lab
Fax: +49 641 99 47049

Christiane Pleuger

Post-doctoral researcher


Contact details:
Institute for Anatomy and Cell Biology, Aulweg 123, D-35392 Gießen, Germany
Tel.: +49 641 99 41689 office 47034 lab
Fax: +49 641 99 47049


Contact details:

Institute for Anatomy and Cell Biology, Aulweg 123, D-35392 Gießen, Germany
Phone: +49 641 99 47032 office 47035 lab
Fax: +49 641 99 47049

Yalong Yang


Contact details:
Institute for Anatomy and Cell Biology, Aulweg 123, D-35392 Gießen, Germany
Tel: +49 641 99 47033 office 47034 lab
Fax: +49 641 99 47049


The proteome and phosphoproteome of maize pollen uncovers fertility candidate proteins

Maize is unique since it is both monoecious and diclinous (separate male and female flowers on the same plant). We investigated the proteome and phosphoproteome of maize pollen containing modified proteins and here we provide a comprehensive pollen proteome and phosphoproteome which contain 100,990 peptides from 6750 proteins and 5292 phosphorylated sites corresponding to 2257 maize phosphoproteins, respectively. Interestingly, among the total 27 overrepresented phosphosite motifs we identified here, 11 were novel motifs, which suggested different modification mechanisms in plants compared to those of animals. Enrichment analysis of pollen phosphoproteins showed that pathways including DNA synthesis/chromatin structure, regulation of RNA transcription, protein modification, cell organization, signal transduction, cell cycle, vesicle transport, transport of ions and metabolisms, which were involved in pollen development, the following germination and pollen tube growth, were regulated by phosphorylation. In this study, we also found 430 kinases and 105 phosphatases in the maize pollen phosphoproteome, among which calcium dependent protein kinases (CDPKs), leucine rich repeat kinase, SNF1 related protein kinases and MAPK family proteins were heavily enriched and further analyzed. From our research, we also uncovered hundreds of male sterility-associated proteins and phosphoproteins that might influence maize productivity and serve as targets for hybrid maize seed production. At last, a putative complex signaling pathway involving CDPKs, MAPKs, ubiquitin ligases and multiple fertility proteins was constructed. Overall, our data provides new insight for further investigation of protein phosphorylation status in mature maize pollen and construction of maize male sterile mutants in the future.

Bu obuna tarkibini oldindan ko'rish, sizning muassasangiz orqali kirish.


Clinical trials testing infertility treatments often do not report on the major outcomes of interest to patients and clinicians and the public (such as live birth) nor on the harms, including maternal risks during pregnancy and fetal anomalies. This is complicated by the multiple participants in infertility trials which may include a woman (mother), a man (father), and a third individual if successful, their offspring (child), who is also the desired outcome of treatment. The primary outcome of interest and many adverse events occur after cessation of infertility treatment and during pregnancy and the puerperium, which creates a unique burden of follow-up for clinical trial investigators and participants. In 2013, because of the inconsistencies in trial reporting and the unique aspects of infertility trials not adequately addressed by existing Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) statements, we convened a consensus conference in Harbin, China, with the aim of planning modifications to the CONSORT checklist to improve the quality of reporting of clinical trials testing infertility treatment. The consensus group recommended that the preferred primary outcome of all infertility trials is live birth (defined as any delivery of a live infant after ≥20 weeks' gestation) or cumulative live birth, defined as the live birth per women over a defined time period (or number of treatment cycles). In addition, harms to all participants should be systematically collected and reported, including during the intervention, any resulting pregnancy, and the neonatal period. Routine information should be collected and reported on both male and female participants in the trial. We propose to track the change in quality that these guidelines may produce in published trials testing infertility treatments. Our ultimate goal is to increase the transparency of benefits and risks of infertility treatments to provide better medical care to affected individuals and couples.

Disclosures are listed in within the text if the article.

This study, participants' travel and their attendance to the meeting was funded from by the National Clinical Trial Base in TCM, National Key Discipline/Specialty, Longjiang Scholars' Program, and Innovative Team of Heilongjiang Province Universities.

This article has not been externally peer reviewed.

This article is being published simultaneously in Human Reproduction.

Conference Chairs: Richard S. Legro (USA) and Xiaoke Wu (China). Scientific Committee: Kurt T. Barnhart (USA), Cynthia Farquhar (New Zealand), Bart C. J. M. Fauser (the Netherlands), Ben Mol (Australia).


Videoni tomosha qiling: КАК ВЫДЕЛИТЬ ПЛАЗМИДУ ИЗ БАКТЕРИАЛЬНОЙ КЛЕТКИ . БИОЛОГИЯ ВМЕСТЕ (Yanvar 2023).