Ma `lumot

1.6: Tirik mavjudotlarning o'zaro bog'liqligi - Biologiya


Omon qolish uchun yana qanday turlar kerak?

Turlar yolg'iz yashay olmaydi. Barcha hayot omon qolish uchun boshqa hayotga muhtoj. Bu erda jarroh baliqlari toshbaqa qobig'idagi suv o'tlari o'sishi bilan oziqlanadi, bu bir-biriga muhtoj bo'lgan ikkita turning klassik namunasidir. Bu simbiotik munosabatlarga misol.

Tirik mavjudotlarning o'zaro bog'liqligi

Barcha tirik mavjudotlar atrof-muhitga bog'liq bo'lib, ularni oziq-ovqat, suv va boshpana kabi zarur narsalar bilan ta'minlaydi. Ularning muhiti tuproq, havo va harorat kabi jismoniy omillar va boshqa organizmlardan iborat. An organizm individual tirik mavjudotdir. Ko'pgina tirik mavjudotlar o'z muhitidagi boshqa organizmlar bilan o'zaro ta'sir qiladi. Aslida, ular omon qolish uchun boshqa organizmlarga muhtoj bo'lishi mumkin. Bu sifatida tanilgan o'zaro bog'liqlik. Masalan, o'zi oziq-ovqat tayyorlay olmaydigan tirik mavjudotlar oziq-ovqat uchun boshqa organizmlarni iste'mol qilishi kerak. Tirik mavjudotlar o'rtasidagi boshqa o'zaro ta'sirlarga simbioz va raqobat kiradi.

Simbioz

Simbioz har xil turdagi organizmlar o'rtasidagi yaqin munosabatlar bo'lib, unda organizmlardan kamida bittasi foyda keltiradi. Boshqa organizm ham foyda ko'rishi mumkin, u munosabatlarga ta'sir qilmasligi yoki munosabatlardan zarar ko'rishi mumkin. Rasm Quyida simbioz misoli keltirilgan. Rasmdagi qushlar kiyikning mo'ynasidan oziq-ovqat tanlay oladi. Kiyik qushlarni yemaydi. Darhaqiqat, kiyik bila turib, qushlarning ustiga dam beradi. Nima, agar biror narsa bo'lsa, kiyik munosabatlardan chiqib ketadi deb o'ylaysizmi?

Qizil kiyik kiyiklarida parazitlarni qidirishdan oldin yulduzlar galasi tashqariga qaraydi.

Musobaqa

Musobaqa bir xil resurslarga bog'liq bo'lgan tirik mavjudotlar o'rtasidagi munosabatlardir. Resurslar oziq-ovqat, suv yoki ikkalasiga ham kerak bo'lgan boshqa narsalar bo'lishi mumkin. Raqobat ikkalasi bir xil manbalarni bir joyda va bir vaqtning o'zida olishga harakat qilganda yuzaga keladi. Ikkala organizm o'zaro to'qnash kelishlari mumkin va yaxshiroq moslashgan organizm boshqa organizmdan g'alaba qozonishi mumkin.

Xulosa

  • Barcha tirik mavjudotlar atrof-muhitga bog'liq bo'lib, ularni oziq-ovqat, suv va boshpana kabi zarur narsalar bilan ta'minlaydi.
  • Simbioz - har xil turdagi organizmlar o'rtasidagi yaqin munosabatlar bo'lib, unda kamida bitta organizm foyda keltiradi.
  • Raqobat - bir xil resurslarga bog'liq bo'lgan tirik mavjudotlar o'rtasidagi munosabatlar.

Ko'proq o'rganing

Keyingi savollarga javob berish uchun ushbu manbadan foydalaning.

  • http://www.hippocampus.org/Biology → Non-Majors Biology → Qidiruv: Jamiyatlar ichidagi o'zaro munosabatlar
  1. Jamiyat ichidagi organizmlar bir-biri bilan qanday munosabatda bo'ladi?
  2. Raqobatning ikki turini tavsiflang va misollar keltiring.
  3. Yirtqichlik o'lja populyatsiyasiga qanday foyda keltirishi mumkin?
  4. Simbiotik munosabatlarning har xil turlarini tavsiflang.
  5. Odamlar ishtirokidagi o'zaro munosabatlarning bir turini tavsiflang.

Ko‘rib chiqish

  1. O'zaro bog'liqlik deganda nima tushuniladi?
  2. Boshqa tirik mavjudotlarga bog'liqligingizni misol qilib ko'rsating.
  3. Simbioz va raqobatni solishtiring va taqqoslang.
  4. Organizmlar raqobatlasha oladigan resurslarga uchta misol keltiring.

Tirik mavjudotlarning xilma-xilligi - PowerPoint PPT taqdimoti

PowerShow.com - bu taqdimot/slayd-shou almashish bo'yicha yetakchi veb-sayt. Sizning arizangiz biznes, qanday, ta'lim, tibbiyot, maktab, cherkov, sotish, marketing, onlayn trening yoki shunchaki o'yin-kulgi uchun bo'ladimi, PowerShow.com-bu ajoyib manba. Va eng yaxshisi, uning ajoyib xususiyatlarining aksariyati bepul va ulardan foydalanish oson.

Siz PowerShow.com -dan foydalanib, o'zingiz xohlagan har qanday mavzu bo'yicha onlayn PowerPoint ppt -prezentatsiyalarining namunalarini topishingiz va yuklab olishingiz mumkin, shunda siz o'zingizning slaydlaringiz va prezentatsiyalaringizni qanday yaxshilashni bilib olasiz. Yoki undan qanday qilib yangi narsalarni qilishni o‘rgatadigan tasvirlangan yoki animatsion slaydlar bilan yuqori sifatli PowerPoint ppt taqdimotlarini topish va yuklab olish uchun foydalaning, shuningdek, bepul. Yoki undan oʻz PowerPoint slaydlaringizni yuklash uchun foydalaning, shunda ularni oʻqituvchilaringiz, sinfingiz, talabalaringiz, boshliqlaringiz, xodimlaringiz, mijozlaringiz, potentsial investorlar yoki dunyo bilan baham koʻrishingiz mumkin. Yoki undan Facebook -dagi do'stlaringiz yoki Google+ doiralaringiz bilan bo'lishishingiz mumkin bo'lgan 2D va 3D -o'tish, animatsiya va musiqa tanlovi bilan ajoyib foto slayd -shoularni yaratish uchun foydalaning. Bu ham bepul!

Kichkina to'lov evaziga siz sanoatning eng yaxshi onlayn maxfiyligini olishingiz yoki prezentatsiyalaringiz va slayd-shoularingizni yuqori reytinglar bilan omma oldida targ'ib qilishingiz mumkin. Ammo bundan tashqari, bu bepul. Biz sizning taqdimotlaringiz va slayd-shoularingizni universal Flash formatiga o'zgartiramiz, ularning barcha asl multimedia shon-shuhrati, jumladan animatsiya, 2D va 3D o'tish effektlari, o'rnatilgan musiqa yoki boshqa audio yoki hatto slaydlarga o'rnatilgan video. Hammasi bepul. PowerShow.com saytidagi taqdimotlar va slayd-shoularning ko'pchiligini ko'rish bepul, ko'plarini hatto bepul yuklab olish mumkin. (Siz odamlarga asl PowerPoint taqdimotlaringiz va foto slayd-shoularingizni haq evaziga yoki bepul yoki umuman yuklab olishiga ruxsat berishni tanlashingiz mumkin.) Bugun PowerShow.com saytiga tashrif buyuring - BEPUL. Haqiqatan ham hamma uchun biror narsa bor!

bepul taqdimotlar. Yoki undan qanday qilib yangi narsalarni qilishni o‘rgatadigan tasvirlangan yoki animatsion slaydlar bilan yuqori sifatli PowerPoint ppt taqdimotlarini topish va yuklab olish uchun foydalaning, shuningdek, bepul. Yoki undan oʻz PowerPoint slaydlaringizni yuklash uchun foydalaning, shunda ularni oʻqituvchilaringiz, sinfingiz, talabalaringiz, boshliqlaringiz, xodimlaringiz, mijozlaringiz, potentsial investorlar yoki dunyo bilan baham koʻrishingiz mumkin. Yoki undan Facebook -dagi do'stlaringiz yoki Google+ doiralaringiz bilan bo'lishishingiz mumkin bo'lgan 2D va 3D -o'tish, animatsiya va musiqa tanlovi bilan ajoyib foto slayd -shoularni yaratish uchun foydalaning. Bu ham bepul!


Kichik 1-sinf FAN mutafakkirlari Kichik 1-sinf FAN Fikrlovchilar birinchi sinf uchun maxsus fanlar boʻyicha toʻliq oʻquv dasturidir. Bu sizning talabalaringizni tanishtirish, o'rgatish, mashq qilish va baholash uchun kerak bo'lgan hamma narsa. U NGSS standartlarini ham, 1-sinf fanlari bo'yicha ko'plab davlat standartlarini ham o'z ichiga oladi. Ushbu o'quv dasturi Karen Jons tomonidan to'liq tadqiq qilingan, ishlab chiqilgan va yaratilgan. kichik o'quvchilaringizga bizning dunyomizda tirik mavjudotlar qanday o'sishi va yashashi haqida hamma narsani o'rgatadi. U sizning sinfingiz uchun ko'plab qiziqarli tadqiqotlar va tajribalarni o'z ichiga oladi. U ushbu mavzular bo'yicha darslarni o'z ichiga oladi: Tirik va jonsiz narsalar Tirik mavjudotlarning o'zaro bog'liqligi BIRLIK KOMPONENTLARI: - Ovozli o'qish uchun 6 ta bosma/prognozli kitoblar - Bosqichma-bosqich, skriptlashtirilgan dars rejalari (jami o'n ikki, 30 daqiqalik dars rejalari) -Asosiy savol va o'quv maqsadli plakatlar -Baholash va ball uchun rubrikka -Har bir dars davomida oʻqitishingizga yoʻl-yoʻriq koʻrsatadigan TOʻLIQ PowerPoint birligi (qogʻozni tejashga yordam berish uchun barcha kitoblar, maqsadlar, faoliyat va ishchi kitob sahifalari PowerPoint dasturiga kiritilgan) 1-dars: Tirik va jonsiz mavjudotlar 2-dars: Tirik mavjudotlarning QISMLARI ULARNING yashovchan qolishiga qanday yordam beradi? 3-dars: BIOMIMIKRIY TEKSHIRUSH 4-dars: TIRIK NORZATLARNING ZURUDLARI 5-dars: MEROS XUSUSIYATLAR 6-dars: MEROS XUSUSIYATLARNI TEKSHIRISH 7-dars: O‘SIMLAR VA HAYVONLARNING O‘ZBARLIGI 9-dars: FAN stansiyalari 10-dars: FAN stansiyalari 12-dars: BIRLIKNI BAHOLASH * Iltimos, oldindan ko'rishni yuklab oling, buning hammasini, shu jumladan hamma narsaning namunalarini ko'ring!* Tirik mavjudotlar Vs. Tirik bo'lmagan narsalar dars rejasi

Talabalar jonli va jonsiz narsalarni solishtirish imkoniyatiga ega bo'ladilar.

Talabalar tirik va jonsiz mavjudotlarning xususiyatlarini aniqlay oladilar.

Talabalar o'simliklar, hayvonlar va odamlarni tirik mavjudotlar deb bilishadi.

Darsning asosiy savol(lar)i

Davomiyligi

120 daqiqa / 2 ta katta guruh darslari

Materiallar

Sehrli maktab avtobusi urug'larni ekadi: tirik mavjudotlar qanday o'sishi haqida kitob Joanna Koul va Jon Speirs tomonidan ham kashfiyotlar bo'yicha birlashgan oqimda ko'rish mumkin

Mushuk, mashina, sincap, velosiped, avtobus, bloklar, stol o'yini, gul, daraxt, pashsha, samolyot, ari, bola, kattalar kabi guruh faoliyati uchun jonli va jonsiz narsalarning rasmlari to'plami

Uning yashash joyida oltin baliq va katta daryo qoyasi

Tavsiya etilgan ta'lim strategiyalari

Ushbu dars oxirida talabalar tirik va jonsiz mavjudotlarning xususiyatlarini aniqlab, tirik va jonsiz narsalarni solishtirish imkoniyatiga ega bo'ladilar. Shuningdek, o‘quvchilar o‘simliklar, hayvonlar va odamlarning tirik mavjudot ekanligini bilib oladilar.

Talabalar turli rasmlarni solishtirish va solishtirish va ularni 2 guruhga saralash yo'lini izlash orqali oldingi bilimlarni baholash orqali faollashadilar.

Talabalar jonli mavjudotlarning videokliplarini tomosha qiladilar va videoda ko'rilgan tirik va jonsiz narsalarni aniqlaydilar. Ikkinchi mashg'ulotda talabalar tirik mavjudotlarning xususiyatlariga bag'ishlangan ertakni tinglaydilar va muhokama qiladilar. Yakuniy mashg'ulotda talabalar kun davomida ikkita alohida ob'ektni (jonli va jonsiz) va jurnalida keyingi yozish va chizishning bir qismini kuzatadilar.

Qaysi talabalarga qo'shimcha amaliyot yoki qayta o'qitish kerakligini aniqlash uchun formativ baholash usullaridan foydalaning. Yangi lug'atni tushunishni mustahkamlash uchun ushbu talabalar bilan individual yoki kichik guruhlarda ishlang.

Talabalarning mashg'ulotlarda ishtirok etishlarini kuzatish tushunishni baholash uchun ishlatilishi mumkin. Kuzatishning tugallangan jurnali va tugallangan rasm va bayonot faoliyati va butun sinfni tekshirishda ishtirok etish.

Bu dars qiyinchilikka uchragan o'quvchilarni qobiliyatliroq o'quvchilar bilan birlashtirish orqali individual ehtiyojlarga moslashtirilishi mumkin. Dars o'quvchilarning ko'rish va eshitish faoliyati orqali bilim olish imkoniyatini beradi.

Talabalar kichik guruhda, katta guruhda va yakka tartibda bu darsning faoliyatini yakunlaydilar.

Ta'lim jarayonlari

Tirik va jonsiz mavjudotlar haqidagi oldingi bilimlarni baholash uchun tasodifiy rasmlarni taxtaning chetida ko'rsating: mashina, mushuk, sincap, velosiped, avtobus, bloklar, stol o'yini, gul, daraxt, pashsha, samolyot, ari, bola , kattalar. Talabalarni 3 yoki 4 kishidan iborat kichik guruhlarga joylashtiring. Har bir guruhga rasmlar to'plamini bering. Talabalardan barcha rasmlarni ikkita guruhga (jonli va tirik bo'lmagan) ajratish yo'lini o'ylab ko'rishlarini so'rang. Shuningdek, ularga "tirik mavjudotlar" o'simliklar, hayvonlar yoki odamlar ekanligini tushunishga yordam bering

Yo'naltiruvchi savollarni bering:

O'yinga javoblarini ko'rib chiqish orqali tirik va jonsiz mavjudotlar o'rtasidagi farq haqida gapiring.

Doskaga yoki katta qog'ozga &ldquoLiving&rdquo va &ldquoNot Living.&rdquo Jonli va tirik bo'lmagan narsalar haqida fikr almashing va ularni tegishli ustunga yozing.

Barcha tirik mavjudotlarni ko'rib chiqing. Ularning umumiyligi haqida fikr almashing. Munozarani barcha tirik mavjudotlarning tamoyillarini aniqlashga olib boring, jumladan: ovqatdan foydalanish, chiqindilarni tashlash, o'sish va o'zlari kabi naslni ko'paytirish.

Tirik mavjudotlar kliplarini tomosha qilish uchun http://pbskids.org/dragonflytv/show/livingthings.html. Veb-saytni ko'rganingizdan so'ng, talabalardan tirik bo'lmagan narsalarni nomlashlarini so'rang. Javoblarni interaktiv smart doskaga yozib oling. Ushbu veb-saytda tirik mavjudotlar haqida ko'plab videokliplar mavjud.

O'qing Sehrli maktab avtobusi urug'larni ekadi: tirik mavjudotlar qanday o'sishi haqida kitob talabalarga. Talabalarga tirik mavjudotlarning xususiyatlarini muhokama qiling. Ularning javoblarini interaktiv doskaga yozib oling.

Oltin baliqlarning yashash joyini baliq idishida o'rnating va ko'rsating. Baliq idishining yoniga katta daryo toshini qo'ying. Sinf a'zolaridan tosh va oltin baliqlarni kun davomida kuzatishlarini so'rang, ular kuzatayotgan narsalarning rasmlarini chizish.

Yuqoridagi yo'naltiruvchi savollarni bering: tirik nima? Nima tirik emas? Talabalarni har birining tashqi ko'rinishi va harakatini tasvirlash va solishtirish va kuzatganlarini baham ko'rish uchun kundalik rasmlarini baham ko'rishga taklif qiling. Tosh va oltin baliq
Talabalarga eslatib o'tamizki, ular taqqoslaganda, ular qanday qilib bir-biriga o'xshash va farqli ekanligini aytib berishadi.
Har bir narsani tirik yoki jonsiz qilishini muhokama qiling. Talabalardan tirik mavjudotlarning uchta turini sanab bering: hayvonlar, o'simliklar va odamlar. Ularga tirik mavjudotlar yashashi uchun nima kerak bo'lishini aytib bering.
Ularning javoblarini interaktiv doskada chizing

Talabalar kuzatganlarini chizishlari uchun badiiy qog'oz bering. Ulardan birini yoki ikkalasini ham tirik yoki jonsiz qiladigan narsa haqida bayonot yozishlarini so'rang. Talabalarga bayonotlar bilan yordam bering.

Sinf sifatida veb-saytdagi Tirik narsalar viktorinasini topshiring

Sinf viktorina topshirayotganda javoblarni muhokama qiling.
Viktorinani topshirgandan so'ng, talabalarga baholash faoliyatini individual ravishda bering.


Biologiya ta'riflarining qisqacha mazmuni

Diffuziya – zarrachalarning yuqori konsentratsiyali hududdan past konsentratsiyali hududga passiv harakati.

Osmos – suv molekulalarining passiv harakati, qisman o'tkazuvchan membrana bo'ylab, erigan moddaning past konsentratsiyasi bo'lgan hududdan yuqori erigan konsentratsiyali hududga.

3.2.1 – Organik va noorganik birikmalarni farqlash

Organik birikmalar bor uglerodga asoslangan va bo'lishi mumkin tirik mavjudotlarda uchraydi. Istisnolar CO. Ular noorganik uglerod sifatida tasniflanadi. Tirik organizmlarda keng tarqalgan uch turdagi organik birikmalar lipidlar, oqsillar va uglevodlardir.

Noorganik birikmalar har qanday birikmalar organik birikmalar toifasiga kirmaydi.

3.6.1 – Ferment va faol joyni aniqlang

Ferment – Globulyar oqsildan tayyorlangan biologik katalizator

Faol sayt -Ferment molekulasi yuzasining substrat molekulasi bog'lanadigan va kataliz sodir bo'ladigan hududi

3.6.4 – Denaturatsiyani aniqlang

A tarkibiy o'zgarish shaklini o'zgartiradigan va biologik xususiyatlarning yo'qolishiga olib keladigan oqsilda. Bu bo'lishi mumkin pH yoki harorat tufayli yuzaga keladi.

3.7.1 – Hujayra nafasini aniqlang

Hujayra nafasi - bu hujayralardagi organik birikmalardan ATP ko'rinishidagi energiyaning nazorat ostida chiqarilishi

4.1.2 – Gen, allel va genomni aniqlang

Gen – Gen - bu o'ziga xos xususiyatni boshqaradigan irsiy omil

Allele – Allel genning o'ziga xos shakli bo'lib, boshqa allellar uchun faqat bir yoki bir necha asos bilan farqlanadi. Ular gendagi boshqa allellar bilan bir xil gen lokusini egallaydi

Genom – Biror organizmning butun genetik ma'lumotlari

4.1.3 – Gen mutatsiyasini aniqlang

Gen mutatsiyasi - allelning asosiy ketma-ketligining o'zgarishi

4.2.2 – Gomologik xromosomalarni aniqlang

Diploid hujayradagi xromosomalar, genlarning bir xil ketma-ketligini o'z ichiga oladi, lekin turli ota-onalardan kelib chiqadi.

4.3.1 – Genotip, fenotip, dominant allel, retsessiv allel, kodominant allellar, lokus, homozigot, geterozigota, tashuvchi va sinov xoch

Genotip – Biror organizmning allellari

Fenotip – Biror organizmning xususiyatlari

Dominant allel – Fenotipga bir xil ta'sir ko'rsatadigan allel, u homozigot yoki geterozigota holatda bo'ladimi?

Resessiv allel – Gomozigota holatida faqat fenotipga ta'sir qiluvchi allel.

Kodominant allellar – Geterozigotada mavjud bo'lganda ikkalasi ham fenotipga ta'sir qiluvchi juft allellar

Lokus – Genning homolog xromosomalaridagi alohida pozitsiyasi

Gomozigota – Bir genning ikkita bir xil alleliga ega bo'lish

Geterozigot – Bir genning ikki xil alleliga ega bo'lish

Tashuvchi – Ushbu allel uchun homozigot bo'lgan shaxslarda genetik kasallikni keltirib chiqaradigan retsessiv allelning bitta nusxasiga ega bo'lgan shaxs

Test xoch – Shubhali heterozigotni ma'lum homozigot retsessiv bilan kesib o'tish orqali tekshirish

4.3.7 – Jinsiy aloqani aniqlang

Genlar jinsiy xromosomalardan faqat bittasida olib borilgan va shuning uchun erkak genni urg'ochi genni olib yuradigan xochlarda merosning boshqa naqshini ko'rsatadi.

4.4.11 – Klonni aniqlang

Genetik jihatdan bir xil organizmlar guruhi yoki bitta ota-ona hujayradan olingan hujayralar guruhi

5.1.1 – Turlarni, yashash muhitini, populyatsiyani, jamoani, ekotizimni va ekologiyani aniqlang

Turlar – O'zaro chatishtirish va unumdor nasl berish mumkin bo'lgan organizmlar guruhi.

Yashash joyi – Tur odatda yashaydigan muhit yoki tirik organizmning joylashuvi.

Aholi – Bir vaqtning o'zida bir xil hududda yashaydigan bir xil turdagi organizmlar guruhi.

Hamjamiyat – Bir xil hududda yashovchi va bir-biri bilan o'zaro aloqada bo'lgan populyatsiyalar guruhi.

Ekotizim – Jamiyat va uning abiotik muhiti.

Ekologiya – Tirik organizmlar va ularning atrof-muhit o'rtasidagi munosabatlarni o'rganish

5.1.2 – Avtotrof va geterotrofni farqlash

Avtotrof – O'zining organik molekulalarini oddiy noorganik moddalardan sintez qiladigan organizm.

Geterotrof – Boshqa organizmlardan organik molekulalarni oladigan organizm

5.1.3 – Iste'molchilar, zararli moddalar va saprotroflar o'rtasidagi farq

Iste'molchilar – Tirik yoki yaqinda o'ldirilgan boshqa organik moddalarni yutib yuboradigan organizm

Detritivore – Tirik bo'lmagan organik moddalarni yutadigan organizm, shuningdek, parchalanuvchi sifatida ham tanilgan.

Saprotrof – Tirik bo'lmagan organik moddalar ustida yoki tarkibida yashaydigan, unga ovqat hazm qilish fermentlarini chiqaradigan va ovqat hazm qilish mahsulotlarini o'zlashtiradigan organizm.

5.1.6 – Aniqlash trofik Daraja

Organizmning trofik darajasi bu organizmning oziq-ovqat zanjiridagi boshqa organizmlar bilan oziqlanish munosabatini belgilaydi. Oziq-ovqat tarmog'ida iste'molchi qaysi organizm o'lja ekanligiga qarab bir qancha turli trofik darajalarni egallashi mumkin.

5.4.1 – Evolyutsiyani aniqlang

Evolyutsiya - bu populyatsiyaning irsiy xususiyatlarining umumiy o'zgarishi.

6.1.6 – Absorbsiya va assimilyatsiya o'rtasidagi farq

Emilim – Ovqat hazm qilish eruvchan mahsulotlar qon aylanish tizimiga so'riladi, yoki ular yog'lar tomchilari bo'lsa limfa tizimi.

Assimilyatsiya – Ovqat hazm qilish mahsulotlari to'qimalarda saqlanadi yoki foydalanish uchun qondan hujayralarga so'riladi.

6.3.1 – Patogenni aniqlang

Kasallik yoki kasallikni keltirib chiqaradigan organizm yoki virus. Bular odatda mikroorganizmlardir.

6.3.5 – Antigen va antikorlarni farqlash

Antigen - Antikor ishlab chiqarishni rag'batlantiradigan begona modda. U immunitet tizimi tomonidan tan olinadi, bu immunitet reaktsiyasini qo'zg'atadi.

Antikorlar - O'ziga xos antijenlarni taniydigan va bog'laydigan oqsillar, immunoglobin. Ular polipeptid zanjirlaridan tuzilgan T yoki Y shakliga ega.

6.4.1 – Ventilyatsiya, gaz almashinuvi va hujayra nafas olishini farqlash

Ventilyatsiya - Nasos mexanizmi havoni o'pka ichiga va tashqarisiga samarali harakat qiladi va shu bilan diffuziya uchun kontsentratsiya gradientini saqlaydi.

Gaz almashinuvi - organizm va uning atrofidagi gazlar almashinuvi, shu jumladan hayvonlar va o'simliklarda kislorodni qabul qilish va karbonat angidridni chiqarish.

Hujayra nafasi - Hujayralardagi organik birikmalardan ATP shaklida energiyaning boshqariladigan chiqarilishi. Bu barcha hujayralardagi uzluksiz jarayon.

6.5.4 – Dam olish potentsialini va harakat potentsialini aniqlang (depolyarizatsiya va repolyarizatsiya)

Dam olish potentsiali - Impuls o'tkazilmaganda hujayra membranasi bo'ylab elektr potentsiali

Harakat potentsiali - impuls u bo'ylab harakatlanayotganda neyronning ichki va tashqi qismlari o'rtasidagi elektr potentsialining mahalliy teskari o'zgarishi yoki depolarizatsiyasi, so'ngra tiklanishi yoki repolyarizatsiyasi.

7.3.2 – DNKning sezgir va antisens zanjirlarini farqlash.

Sezgi ipi – The kodlash zanjiri u RNK polimeraza bog'laydigan va transkripsiyani boshlaydigan asoslarning promotorlar ketma-ketligini tashiydi. U mRNK bilan bir xil asosiy ketma-ketlikka ega, faqat timin o'rniga urasil. Shuningdek, u har bir genning oxirida asoslarning terminator ketma-ketligini olib yuradi va bu RNK polimeraza transkripsiyasini to'xtatishga olib keladi.

Antisensiya chizig'i – Qo'shimcha tayanch juftligi orqali transkripsiya uchun shablon strand. U timin o'rniga urasilli tRNK bilan bir xil asosga ega.

9.2.5 – Transpiratsiyani aniqlang

Transpiratsiya - bu o'simliklarning barglari va poyalaridan suv bug'ining yo'qolishi

9.3.2 – Changlanish, urug'lanish va urug'larning tarqalishini farqlash.

Changlanish – Polen donalarining etuk anterdan retseptiv stigmaga o'tishi.

Urug'lantirish – Erkak gametaning ayol jinsiy hujayrasi bilan qo'shilib zigota hosil bo'lishi

Urug'larning tarqalishi – Cheklangan resurslar uchun raqobatni kamaytirish uchun urug'lar unib chiqishdan oldin ota-ona o'simliklari yaqinidan uzoqroqqa ko'chiriladi. Buning mexanizmlariga mevalar, shamollar, suv va hayvonlar kiradi.

10.2.2 – Autosomalar va jinsiy xromosomalarni farqlash

Avtosoma – Jinsiy xromosoma bo'lmagan xromosoma. Ular jinsga qarab farq qilmaydi

Jinsiy xromosoma – Boshqa tana (soma) xususiyatlaridan ko'ra jinsni aniqlaydigan xromosoma

10.3.1 – Poligenik merosni aniqlang

Bir nechta genlarning umumiy ta'siri bilan belgilanadigan fenotipik belgilarning (odamlarda bo'y, ko'z rangi kabi) merosxo'rligi – ikki yoki undan ortiq gen tomonidan boshqariladigan yagona xususiyat

11.3.1 – Chiqarishni aniqlang

Metabolik jarayonlarning chiqindilarini tanadan olib tashlash

11.3.5 – Osmoregulyatsiyani aniqlang

Tirik organizmning qon, to'qima yoki sitoplazmasining suv balansini nazorat qilish.


Hozirgi turlarning xilma-xilligi

Katta sa'y-harakatlarga qaramay, sayyorada yashovchi turlar haqidagi bilimlar cheklangan. Yaqinda o'tkazilgan hisob-kitoblarga ko'ra, ilm-fan nomiga ega bo'lgan eukaryot turlari, taxminan 1,5 million tur, sayyorada mavjud bo'lgan eukariot turlarining umumiy sonining 20 foizidan kamrog'ini tashkil qiladi (bir hisob bo'yicha 8,7 million tur). Prokaryotik turlarning soni haqidagi taxminlar asosan taxmindir, ammo biologlar fan ularning xilma-xilligini endigina kataloglashni boshlaganiga qo'shiladilar. Ma'lum bo'lsa ham, tasvirlangan turlarning nomlari yoki namunalarining markazlashtirilgan ombori mavjud emas, shuning uchun 1,5 million ta'rifning aniq raqam ekanligiga ishonch hosil qilishning iloji yo'q. Bu turli taksonomik guruhlar bo'yicha mutaxassislarning fikrlariga asoslangan eng yaxshi taxmindir. Yer jadal sur'atlar bilan turlarini yo'qotayotganini hisobga olsak, fan nima yo'qolayotgani haqida juda kam narsa biladi. [1-rasm] turli guruhlardagi biologik xilma-xillikning so'nggi hisob-kitoblarini taqdim etadi.

Ushbu jadvalda tavsiflangan (nomlangan va o'rganilgan) va bashorat qilingan (hali nomlanmagan) turlarning taksonomik guruhlari bo'yicha taxminiy soni ko'rsatilgan.
Ta'riflangan va bashorat qilingan turlarning taxminiy soni
Manba: Mora va boshqalar 2011 Manba: Chapman 2009 Manba: Groombridge va Jenkins 2002
Ta'riflangan Bashorat qilingan Ta'riflangan Bashorat qilingan Ta'riflangan Bashorat qilingan
Hayvonlar 1,124,516 9,920,000 1,424,153 6,836,330 1,225,500 10,820,000
Fotosintetik protistlar 17,892 34,900 25,044 200,500
Zamburug'lar 44,368 616,320 98,998 1,500,000 72,000 1,500,000
O'simliklar 224,244 314,600 310,129 390,800 270,000 320,000
Fotosintetik bo'lmagan protistlar 16,236 72,800 28,871 1,000,000 80,000 600,000
Prokaryotlar 10,307 1,000,000 10,175
Jami 1,438,769 10,960,000 1,897,502 10,897,630 1,657,675 13,240,000

Ta'riflangan turlarni qulayroq va tartibli tarzda kataloglash bo'yicha turli tashabbuslar mavjud va internet bu harakatni osonlashtiradi. Shunga qaramay, Kuzatilgan Turlar Davlati 1 hisobotiga ko'ra yiliga 17 000-20 000 yangi turni tashkil etuvchi turlarni tavsiflashning hozirgi sur'atida hozirda mavjud bo'lgan barcha turlarni tavsiflash uchun 500 yilga yaqin vaqt kerak bo'ladi. Biroq, vaqt o'tishi bilan bu vazifa imkonsiz bo'lib bormoqda, chunki yo'q bo'lib ketish turlarni Yerdan ular tasvirlanganidan tezroq olib tashlaydi.

Turlarni nomlash va sanash insoniyatning boshqa ehtiyojlarini hisobga olgan holda ahamiyatsiz ish bo'lib tuyulishi mumkin, ammo bu shunchaki hisob emas. Turlarni tavsiflash murakkab jarayon bo'lib, biologlar organizmning o'ziga xos xususiyatlarini va bu organizmning boshqa tasvirlangan turlarga tegishli yoki tegishli emasligini aniqlaydilar. Bu biologlarga turni dastlabki kashfiyotdan keyin topish va tanib olish, uning biologiyasi haqidagi savollarni kuzatish imkonini beradi. Ushbu keyingi tadqiqotlar turni odamlar va ekotizimimiz uchun qimmatli qiladigan kashfiyotlarni keltirib chiqaradi. Nom va tavsifsiz turni bir nechta olimlar tomonidan chuqur va muvofiqlashtirilgan tarzda o'rganish mumkin emas.


Tirik dunyo turli darajalarda tashkil etilishi mumkin. Masalan, ko'pgina individual organizmlarni quyidagi darajalarga ajratish mumkin:

  • Hujayra: Barcha tirik mavjudotlar tuzilishi va funktsiyasining asosiy birligi.
  • To'qimalar: Bir xil turdagi hujayralar guruhi.
  • Organ: Bir yoki bir necha turdagi to'qimalardan tashkil topgan tuzilma. Organning to'qimalari ma'lum bir funktsiyani parfyum qilish uchun birgalikda ishlaydi. Inson organlariga miya, oshqozon, buyrak va jigar kiradi. O'simlik organlariga ildiz, poya va barglar kiradi.
  • Organ tizimi: Muayyan vazifani bajarish uchun birgalikda ishlaydigan organlar guruhi. Insonning organ tizimlariga misollar skelet, asab va reproduktiv tizimlarni o'z ichiga oladi.
  • Organizm: Bir yoki bir nechta organ tizimlaridan iborat bo'lishi mumkin bo'lgan alohida tirik mavjudot.

Ushbu tashkilot darajalariga misollar quyidagi rasmda ko'rsatilgan.

Individual sichqoncha bir nechta organ tizimlaridan iborat. Bu erda ko'rsatilgan tizim ovqat hazm qilish tizimi bo'lib, u ovqatni hujayralar foydalanishi mumkin bo'lgan shaklga aylantiradi. Ovqat hazm qilish tizimining organlaridan biri oshqozondir. Oshqozon, o'z navbatida, har xil turdagi to'qimalardan iborat. To'qimalarning har bir turi bir xil turdagi hujayralardan iborat.

Alohida organizmdan yuqori tashkilot darajalari ham mavjud. Ushbu darajalar quyidagi rasmda ko'rsatilgan.

  • Xuddi shu hududda yashovchi bir xil turdagi organizmlar a.ni tashkil qiladi aholi. Masalan, bitta hududda yashaydigan barcha oltin baliqlar oltin baliqlar populyatsiyasini tashkil qiladi.
  • Bir hududda yashovchi barcha populyatsiyalar a ni tashkil qiladi jamiyat. Oltin baliqlar populyatsiyasini o'z ichiga olgan jamoa boshqa baliqlar, marjonlar va boshqa organizmlar populyatsiyasini ham o'z ichiga oladi.
  • An ekotizim barcha tirik mavjudotlardan iborat (biotik omillar) ma'lum bir hududda, jonsiz muhit bilan birga (abiotik omillar). Jonsiz muhitga suv, quyosh nuri, tuproq va boshqa jismoniy omillar kiradi.
  • Bir xil umumiy turdagi jismoniy muhitga ega bo'lgan o'xshash ekotizimlar guruhi a deyiladi biom.
  • The biosfera Yerning barcha tirik mavjudotlar mavjud bo'lgan qismi, jumladan, tirik mavjudotlar mavjud bo'lgan barcha quruqlik, suv va havo. Biosfera turli xil biomlardan iborat.

Bu rasmda tabiatda individual organizmdan tortib biosferagacha bo'lgan tashkilot darajalari ko'rsatilgan.

Hayotning xilma-xilligi

Erdagi hayot juda xilma-xildir. Tirik mavjudotlarning xilma-xilligi deyiladi biologik xilma -xillik. Yerning biologik xilma-xilligi o'lchovi Yerda yashaydigan turli xil organizmlar sonidir. Bugungi kunda Yerda kamida 10 million xil turlar yashaydi. Ular odatda olti xil shohlikka birlashtirilgan. Har bir qirollikdagi organizmlarga misollar quyidagi rasmda ko'rsatilgan.


Oziq-ovqat tarmoqlari

Ekologik o'zaro bog'liqlikning eng oson tushuniladigan usuli shafqatsizdir: tirik mavjudotlar omon qolish uchun boshqa tirik mavjudotlarni eyishadi. Yirtqich va o'lja munosabatlari olimlar tushungan birinchi oziqlanish munosabatlaridan biri edi. Oziqlanish munosabatlarida yirtqichlar oziq-ovqat zanjirining yuqori qismida joylashgan deb qaraldi. Ekologiya soha sifatida rivojlanganidek, oziqlantirish munosabatlari tushunchasi ham o'sib bormoqda. Oziq-ovqat aylanishi tushunchasi barcha organizmlar, shu jumladan yirtqichlar o'lib, hasharotlar va bakteriyalar kabi boshqa organizmlar iste'mol qilinishini hisobga olish uchun paydo bo'lgan. Oziq-ovqat aylanishlarining bir-biriga bog'liqligini tan olish oziq-ovqat tarmog'i kontseptsiyasining rivojlanishiga olib keldi, bu erda barcha organizmlar potentsial oziq-ovqat hisoblanadi va har bir organizm bir nechta organizm turlari bilan oziqlanadi.


K-12 fan ta'limi uchun asos: amaliyotlar, kesishgan tushunchalar va asosiy g'oyalar (2012)

T u hayot haqidagi fanlar tirik organizmlarning qonuniyatlari, jarayonlari va munosabatlariga e'tibor qaratadi. Hayot o'z-o'zidan mavjud, o'z-o'zini ta'minlaydi, o'z-o'zini ko'paytiradi va rivojlanadi, jismoniy dunyo qonunlariga, shuningdek, genetik dasturlashga muvofiq ishlaydi. Hayotshunoslar hayot qanday ishlashini o'rganish uchun kuzatishlar, tajribalar, farazlar, testlar, modellar, nazariya va texnologiyadan foydalanadilar. Hayotni o'rganish yagona molekulalardan, organizmlar va ekotizimlar orqali butun biosferagacha, ya'ni Yerdagi barcha hayotni o'z ichiga oladi. U ko'z ochib yumguncha sodir bo'ladigan va milliardlab yillar davomida sodir bo'ladigan jarayonlarni o'rganadi. Tirik tizimlar o'zaro bog'langan va o'zaro ta'sir qiladi. Tirik organizmlar fizik muhit yoki geosferaga javob bersa-da, ular evolyutsion vaqt davomida Yerni tubdan o'zgartirdilar. Hayotiy fanlar sohasidagi jadal yutuqlar oziq-ovqat, energiya, sog'liq va atrof-muhit bilan bog'liq ijtimoiy muammolarga biologik yechimlarni taqdim etishga yordam beradi.

Viruslar va bakteriyalardan o'simliklardan zamburug'lardan hayvonlargacha Yerdagi millionlab hayot shakllarining xilma-xilligi hayratlanarli. Birlashtiruvchi printsiplarsiz tirik dunyoni tushunish va bu tushunchalarni muammolarni hal qilishda qo'llash qiyin bo'ladi. Hayotiy fanlarning asosiy tamoyili shundaki, barcha organizmlar evolyutsiya bilan bog'liq va evolyutsiya jarayonlari biosferaning ulkan xilma-xilligiga olib keldi. Turlar ichida ham, turlar orasida ham xilma-xillik mavjud. Ammo gen yoki hujayraning yoki bitta organizmdagi jarayonning funktsiyasi to'g'risida o'rganilgan narsalar ularning ekologik o'zaro ta'siri va evolyutsion bog'liqligi tufayli boshqa organizmlar uchun tegishli. Evolyutsiya va uning genetikasi

Meros va o'zgaruvchanlik mexanizmlari Yerdagi hayotning birligini va xilma-xilligini tushunish uchun kalit hisoblanadi.

Qo'mita hayot haqidagi fanlardagi birlashtiruvchi tamoyillarni aks ettiruvchi to'rtta asosiy g'oyani ishlab chiqdi. Ushbu asosiy g'oyalar hayot haqidagi fanlarni kontseptual tushunish uchun juda muhimdir va talabalarga paydo bo'ladigan tadqiqot natijalarini tushunishga imkon beradi. Biz organizmlar darajasidan boshlaymiz, ko'plab jarayonlar va tuzilmalarni, alohida atomlar kabi kichik tarkibiy qismlardan tortib, hayotning davom etishi uchun zarur bo'lgan organ tizimlarigacha bo'lgan miqyosdan boshlaymiz. Keyin bizning e'tiborimiz atrof-muhitdagi organizmlarni ko'rib chiqishga va ular atrof-muhit va jonli (biotik) va jismoniy (abiotik) xususiyatlar bilan qanday o'zaro ta'sir qilishini ko'rib chiqishga qaratilgan. Keyingi bobda organizmlar qanday ko'payish, genetik ma'lumotni o'z avlodlariga o'tkazish va bu mexanizmlar qanday qilib turlar ichida o'zgaruvchanlikka va shuning uchun xilma-xillikka olib kelishini ko'rib chiqadi. Va nihoyat, hayot haqidagi fanlardagi asosiy g'oyalar evolyutsiya turlar ichida kuzatiladigan xilma-xillik adaptiv modifikatsiya bilan kelib chiqish jarayoni orqali turlar bo'ylab hayotning xilma-xilligiga qanday olib kelganligini tushuntirishi mumkin degan tamoyil bilan yakunlanadi. Evolyutsiya, shuningdek, barcha turlarning asosiy xususiyatlarining ajoyib o'xshashligini hisobga oladi.

Birinchi asosiy g'oya, LS1: Molekulalardan organizmlarga: tuzilmalar va jarayonlar, alohida organizmlar qanday tuzilganligi va bu tuzilmalar hayotni, o'sishni, xatti-harakatni va ko'payishni qo'llab-quvvatlash uchun qanday ishlashini ko'rib chiqadi. Birinchi asosiy g'oya hujayralar hayotning asosiy birligi ekanligi haqidagi birlashtiruvchi printsipga bog'liq.

Ikkinchi asosiy g'oya, LS2: Ekotizimlar: o'zaro ta'sirlar, energiya va dinamika, organizmlarning bir-biri va ularning jismoniy muhiti bilan o'zaro ta'sirini o'rganadi. Bu organizmlarning resurslarni qanday olishini, ular o'zlarining atrof-muhitini qanday o'zgartirishini, o'zgaruvchan atrof-muhit omillari organizmlar va ekotizimlarga qanday ta'sir qilishini, ijtimoiy o'zaro ta'sirlar va guruh xatti-harakatlarining turlar ichida va o'rtasida qanday sodir bo'lishini va bu omillarning barchasi ekotizim faoliyatini aniqlash uchun qanday birlashishini o'z ichiga oladi.

Uchinchi asosiy g'oya, LS3: Irsiyat: avlodlar bo'ylab meros va xususiyatlarning o'zgarishi, avlodlar o'rtasidagi genetik ma'lumotlar oqimiga qaratilgan. Bu fikr genetik meros mexanizmlarini tushuntiradi va gen mutatsiyasining ekologik va genetik sabablarini va gen ekspressiyasining o'zgarishini tavsiflaydi.

To'rtinchi asosiy g'oya, LS4: Biologik evolyutsiya: birlik va xilma-xillik, &ldquo organizmlar populyatsiyalari belgilarining vaqt o'tishidagi o'zgarishlari&rdquo [1] hamda turlarning birligi va xilma-xilligini hisobga oladigan omillarni o'rganadi. Bo'lim

Evolyutsiya va uning asosidagi irsiyat va o'zgaruvchanlikning genetik mexanizmlari Yerdagi hayotning birligini va xilma-xilligini tushunish uchun kalit hisoblanadi.

turli manbalardan (masalan, qiyosiy anatomiya va embriologiya, molekulyar biologiya va genetika) paydo bo'lgan umumiy ajdodning birlashuvchi dalillarini muhokama qilish bilan boshlanadi. Bu populyatsiyadagi genetik jihatdan aniqlangan xususiyatlarning o'zgarishi ma'lum bir muhitda ba'zi a'zolarga reproduktiv ustunlik berishi mumkinligini tasvirlaydi. Bu tabiiy tanlanish moslashuvga, ya'ni atrof-muhit sharoitlariga mos keladigan va o'zgarishi mumkin bo'lgan belgilarning populyatsiyada taqsimlanishiga olib kelishi mumkin. Bunday moslashuvlar oxir-oqibat alohida populyatsiyalarda alohida turlarning rivojlanishiga olib kelishi mumkin. Nihoyat, g‘oyada ekotizimdagi bioxilma-xillikka ta’sir etuvchi omillar, jumladan, inson faoliyati va ekotizim barqarorligidagi bioxilma-xillikning ahamiyati tasvirlangan. Ushbu to'rtta asosiy g'oya va ularning tarkibiy qismlari haqida qisqacha ma'lumot olish uchun 6-1 qutiga qarang.

Organizmlar, ekologiya, irsiyat va evolyutsiyadagi tadqiqotlar, tuzilmalar va jarayonlarning asosiy hayotiy fanlar sohalarini ifodalovchi ushbu to'rtta asosiy g'oya ko'plab sohalarda ishlaydigan ko'plab olimlar tomonidan o'rnatilgan tadqiqot dalillariga asoslangan uzoq tarixga va mustahkam poydevorga ega. Zamonaviy hayot haqidagi fanlarni rivojlantirishda birlashtiruvchi tamoyillarning roli ifodalangan XXI asr biologiyasini rivojlantirishda nazariyaning roli va 21-asr uchun yangi biologiya [2, 3]. Ushbu asosiy g'oyalarni ishlab chiqishda qo'mita, shuningdek, K-12 ilmiy ta'lim adabiyotiga, jumladan, Milliy fan ta'limi standartlari va Ilmiy savodxonlik mezonlari [4, 5]. G'oyalar, shuningdek, zamonaviy hujjatlarni o'z ichiga oladi, masalan Kollej muvaffaqiyati uchun Fan kolleji kengashi standartlari [6] va gʻoyalar Taʼlim taraqqiyotini milliy baholash (NAEP), Xalqaro talabalarni baholash dasturi (PISA) kabi milliy va xalqaro baholash asoslariga mos keladi. Xalqaro matematika va fanlarni o'rganish tendentsiyalari (TIMSS) [7-9]. Bundan tashqari, g'oyalar Amerika Fanni Rivojlantirish Assotsiatsiyasi (AAAS) hisobotida ta'riflanganidek, magistrantlar uchun biologik savodxonlikning asosiy tushunchalariga mos keladi. Bakalavriat biologiya ta'limida ko'rish va o'zgarishlar [10].

HAYOT FANLARIDAGI ASOSIY VA TUZISH G'OYALAR

Asosiy g'oya LS1: Molekulalardan organizmlarga: tuzilmalar va jarayonlar

LS1.A: Tuzilishi va funktsiyasi

LS1.B: Organizmlarning o'sishi va rivojlanishi

LS1.C: Organizmlarda materiya va energiya oqimini tashkil qilish

LS1.D: Axborotni qayta ishlash

Asosiy g'oya LS2: Ekotizimlar: o'zaro ta'sirlar, energiya va dinamika

LS2.A: Ekotizimlardagi o'zaro bog'liq munosabatlar

LS2.B: Cycles of Matter and Energy Transfer in Ecosystems

LS2.C: Ekotizim dinamikasi, ishlashi va chidamliligi

LS2.D: Social Interactions and Group Behavior

Core Idea LS3: Heredity: Inheritance and Variation of Traits

LS3.A: Inheritance of Traits

Core Idea LS4: Biological Evolution: Unity and Diversity

LS4.A: Umumiy nasl va xilma-xillikning dalillari

LS4.D: Biologik xilma-xillik va odamlar

Molekulalardan organizmlarga: tuzilmalar va jarayonlar

How do organisms live, grow, respond to their environment, and reproduce?

All living organisms are made of cells. Life is the quality that distinguishes living things&mdashcomposed of living cells&mdashfrom nonliving objects or those that have died. While a simple definition of life can be difficult to capture, all living things&mdashthat is to say all organisms&mdashcan be characterized by common aspects of their structure and functioning. Organisms are complex, organized, and built on a hierarchical structure, with each level providing the foundation for the next, from the chemical foundation of elements and atoms, to the cells and systems of individual organisms, to species and populations living and interacting in complex ecosystems. Organisms can be made of a single cell or millions of cells working together and include animals, plants, algae, fungi, bacteria, and all other microorganisms.

Organisms respond to stimuli from their environment and actively maintain their internal environment through homeostasis. They grow and reproduce, transferring their genetic information to their offspring. While individual organisms carry the same genetic information over their lifetime, mutation and the transfer from parent to offspring produce new combinations of genes. Over generations natural selection can lead to changes in a species overall hence, species evolve over time. To maintain all of these processes and functions, organisms require materials and energy from their environment nearly all energy that sustains life ultimately comes from the sun.

LS1.A: STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION

How do the structures of organisms enable life&rsquos functions?

A central feature of life is that organisms grow, reproduce, and die. They have characteristic structures (anatomy and morphology), functions (molecular-scale processes to organism-level physiology), and behaviors (neurobiology and, for some animal species, psychology). Organisms and their parts are made of cells, which are the structural units of life and which themselves have molecular substructures that support their functioning. Organisms range in composition from a single cell (unicellular microorganisms) to multicellular organisms, in which different groups of large numbers of cells work together to form systems

of tissues and organs (e.g., circulatory, respiratory, nervous, musculoskeletal), that are specialized for particular functions.

Special structures ichida cells are also responsible for specific cellular functions. The essential functions of a cell involve chemical reactions between many types of molecules, including water, proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, and nucleic acids. All cells contain genetic information, in the form of DNA. Genes are specific regions within the extremely large DNA molecules that form the chromosomes. Genes contain the instructions that code for the formation of molecules called proteins, which carry out most of the work of cells to perform the essential functions of life. That is, proteins provide structural components, serve as signaling devices, regulate cell activities, and determine the performance of cells through their enzymatic actions.

Grade Band Endpoints for LS1.A

By the end of grade 2. All organisms have external parts. Different animals use their body parts in different ways to see, hear, grasp objects, protect themselves, move from place to place, and seek, find, and take in food, water and air. Plants also have different parts (roots, stems, leaves, flowers, fruits) that help them survive, grow, and produce more plants.

By the end of grade 5. Plants and animals have both internal and external structures that serve various functions in growth, survival, behavior, and reproduction. (Boundary: Stress at this grade level is on understanding the macroscale systems and their function, not microscopic processes.)

By the end of grade 8. All living things are made up of cells, which is the smallest unit that can be said to be alive. An organism may consist of one single cell (unicellular) or many different numbers and types of cells (multicellular). Unicellular organisms (microorganisms), like multicellular organisms, need food, water, a way to dispose of waste, and an environment in which they can live.

Within cells, special structures are responsible for particular functions, and the cell membrane forms the boundary that controls what enters and leaves the cell. In multicellular organisms, the body is a system of multiple interacting subsystems. These subsystems are groups of cells that work together to form tissues or organs that are specialized for particular body functions. (Boundary: At this grade level, only a few major cell structures should be introduced.)

By the end of grade 12. Systems of specialized cells within organisms help them perform the essential functions of life, which involve chemical reactions that take place between different types of molecules, such as water, proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, and nucleic acids. All cells contain genetic information in the form of DNA molecules. Genes are regions in the DNA that contain the instructions that code for the formation of proteins, which carry out most of the work of cells.

Multicellular organisms have a hierarchical structural organization, in which any one system is made up of numerous parts and is itself a component of the next level. Feedback mechanisms maintain a living system&rsquos internal conditions within certain limits and mediate behaviors, allowing it to remain alive and functional even as external conditions change within some range. Outside that range (e.g., at a too high or too low external temperature, with too little food or water available), the organism cannot survive. Feedback mechanisms can encourage (through positive feedback) or discourage (negative feedback) what is going on inside the living system.

LS1.B: GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT OF ORGANISMS

How do organisms grow and develop?

The characteristic structures, functions, and behaviors of organisms change in predictable ways as they progress from birth to old age. For example, upon reaching adulthood, organisms can reproduce and transfer their genetic information to their offspring. Animals engage in behaviors that increase their chances for reproduction, and plants may develop specialized structures and/or depend on animal behavior to accomplish reproduction.

Understanding how a single cell can give rise to a complex, multicellular organism builds on the concepts of cell division and gene expression. In multi-cellular organisms, cell division is an essential component of growth, development, and repair. Cell division occurs via a process called mitosis: when a cell divides in two, it passes identical genetic material to two daughter cells. Successive divisions produce many cells. Although the genetic material in each of the cells is identical, small differences in the immediate environments activate or inactivate different genes, which can cause the cells to develop slightly differently. This process of differentiation allows the body to form specialized cells that perform diverse functions, even though they are all descended from a single cell, the fertilized egg. Cell growth and differentiation are the mechanisms by which a fertilized egg develops into a complex organism. In sexual reproduction, a specialized type of cell division

called meiosis occurs and results in the production of sex cells, such as gametes (sperm and eggs) or spores, which contain only one member from each chromosome pair in the parent cell.

Grade Band Endpoints for LS1.B

By the end of grade 2. Plants and animals have predictable characteristics at different stages of development. Plants and animals grow and change. Adult plants and animals can have young. In many kinds of animals, parents and the offspring themselves engage in behaviors that help the offspring to survive.

By the end of grade 5. Reproduction is essential to the continued existence of every kind of organism. Plants and animals have unique and diverse life cycles that include being born (sprouting in plants), growing, developing into adults, reproducing, and eventually dying.

By the end of grade 8. Organisms reproduce, either sexually or asexually, and transfer their genetic information to their offspring. Animals engage in characteristic behaviors that increase the odds of reproduction. Plants reproduce in a variety of ways, sometimes depending on animal behavior and specialized features (such as attractively colored flowers) for reproduction. Plant growth can continue throughout the plant&rsquos life through production of plant matter in photosynthesis. Genetic factors as well as local conditions affect the size of the adult plant. The growth of an animal is controlled by genetic factors, food intake, and interactions with other organisms, and each species has a typical adult size range. (Boundary: Reproduction is not treated in any detail here for more specifics about grade level, see LS3.A.)

By the end of grade 12. In multicellular organisms individual cells grow and then divide via a process called mitosis, thereby allowing the organism to grow. The organism begins as a single cell (fertilized egg) that divides successively to produce many cells, with each parent cell passing identical genetic material (two variants

of each chromosome pair) to both daughter cells. As successive subdivisions of an embryo&rsquos cells occur, programmed genetic instructions and small differences in their immediate environments activate or inactivate different genes, which cause the cells to develop differently&mdasha process called differentiation. Cellular division and differentiation produce and maintain a complex organism, composed of systems of tissues and organs that work together to meet the needs of the whole organism. In sexual reproduction, a specialized type of cell division called meiosis occurs that results in the production of sex cells, such as gametes in animals (sperm and eggs), which contain only one member from each chromosome pair in the parent cell.

LS1.C: ORGANIZATION FOR MATTER AND ENERGY FLOW IN ORGANISMS

How do organisms obtain and use the matter and energy they need to live and grow?

Sustaining life requires substantial energy and matter inputs. The complex structural organization of organisms accommodates the capture, transformation, transport, release, and elimination of the matter and energy needed to sustain them. As matter and energy flow through different organizational levels&mdashcells, tissues, organs, organisms, populations, communities, and ecosystems&mdashof living systems, chemical elements are recombined in different ways to form different products. The result of these chemical reactions is that energy is transferred from one system of interacting molecules to another.

In most cases, the energy needed for life is ultimately derived from the sun through photosynthesis (although in some ecologically important cases, energy is derived from reactions involving inorganic chemicals in the absence of sunlight&mdashe.g., chemosynthesis). Plants, algae (including phytoplankton), and other energy-fixing microorganisms use sunlight, water, and carbon dioxide to facilitate photosynthesis, which stores energy, forms plant matter, releases oxygen, and maintains plants&rsquo activities. Plants and algae&mdashbeing the resource base for animals, the animals that feed on animals, and the decomposers&mdashare energy-fixing organisms that sustain the rest of the food web.

Grade Band Endpoints for LS1.C

By the end of grade 2. All animals need food in order to live and grow. They obtain their food from plants or from other animals. Plants need water and light to live and grow.

By the end of grade 5. Animals and plants alike generally need to take in air and water, animals must take in food, and plants need light and minerals anaerobic life, such as bacteria in the gut, functions without air. Food provides animals with the materials they need for body repair and growth and is digested to release the energy they need to maintain body warmth and for motion. Plants acquire their material for growth chiefly from air and water and process matter they have formed to maintain their internal conditions (e.g., at night).

By the end of grade 8. Plants, algae (including phytoplankton), and many microorganisms use the energy from light to make sugars (food) from carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and water through the process of photosynthesis, which also releases oxygen. These sugars can be used immediately or stored for growth or later use. Animals obtain food from eating plants or eating other animals. Within individual organisms, food moves through a series of chemical reactions in which it is broken down and rearranged to form new molecules, to support growth, or to release energy. In most animals and plants, oxygen reacts with carbon-containing molecules (sugars) to provide energy and produce carbon dioxide anaerobic bacteria achieve their energy needs in other chemical processes that do not require oxygen.

By the end of grade 12. The process of photosynthesis converts light energy to stored chemical energy by converting carbon dioxide plus water into sugars plus released oxygen. The sugar molecules thus formed contain carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen their hydrocarbon backbones are used to make amino acids and other carbon-based molecules that can be assembled into larger molecules (such as proteins or DNA), used for example to form new cells. As matter and energy flow through different organizational levels of living systems, chemical elements are recombined in different ways to form different products. As a result of these chemical reactions, energy is transferred from one system of interacting molecules to another. For example, aerobic (in the presence of oxygen) cellular respiration is a chemical process in which the bonds of food molecules and oxygen molecules are broken and new compounds are formed that can transport energy to muscles. Anaerobic (without oxygen) cellular respiration follows a different and less efficient chemical pathway to provide energy in cells. Cellular respiration also releases the energy needed to maintain body temperature despite ongoing energy loss to the surrounding environment. Matter and energy are conserved in each change. This is true of all biological systems, from individual cells to ecosystems.

LS1.D: INFORMATION PROCESSING

How do organisms detect, process, and use information about the environment?

An organism&rsquos ability to sense and respond to its environment enhances its chance of surviving and reproducing. Animals have external and internal sensory receptors that detect different kinds of information, and they use internal mechanisms for processing and storing it. Each receptor can respond to different inputs (electromagnetic, mechanical, chemical), some receptors respond by transmitting impulses that travel along nerve cells. In complex organisms, most such inputs travel to the brain, which is divided into several distinct regions and circuits that serve primary roles, in particular functions such as visual perception, auditory perception, interpretation of perceptual information, guidance of motor movement, and decision making. In addition, some of the brain&rsquos circuits give rise to emotions and store memories. Brain function also involves multiple interactions between the various regions to form an integrated sense of self and the surrounding world.

Grade Band Endpoints for LS1.D

By the end of grade 2. Animals have body parts that capture and convey different kinds of information needed for growth and survival&mdashfor example, eyes for light, ears for sounds, and skin for temperature or touch. Animals respond to these inputs with behaviors that help them survive (e.g., find food, run from a predator). Plants also respond to some external inputs (e.g., turn leaves toward the sun).

By the end of grade 5. Different sense receptors are specialized for particular kinds of information, which may then be processed and integrated by an animal&rsquos brain, with some information stored as memories. Animals are able to use their perceptions and memories to guide their actions. Some responses to information are instinctive&mdashthat is, animals&rsquo brains are organized so that they do not have to think about how to respond to certain stimuli.

By the end of grade 8. Each sense receptor responds to different inputs (electromagnetic, mechanical, chemical), transmitting them as signals that travel along nerve cells to the brain. The signals are then processed in the brain, resulting in immediate behaviors or memories. Changes in the structure and functioning of many millions of interconnected nerve cells allow combined inputs to be stored as memories for long periods of time.

By the end of grade 12. In complex animals, the brain is divided into several distinct regions and circuits, each of which primarily serves dedicated functions, such as visual perception, auditory perception, interpretation of perceptual information, guidance of motor movement, and decision making about actions to take in the event of certain inputs. In addition, some circuits give rise to emotions and memories that motivate organisms to seek rewards, avoid punishments, develop fears, or form attachments to members of their own species and, in some cases, to individuals of other species (e.g., mixed herds of mammals, mixed flocks of birds). The integrated functioning of all parts of the brain is important for successful interpretation of inputs and generation of behaviors in response to them.

Ecosystems: Interactions, Energy, and Dynamics

How and why do organisms interact with their environment and what are the effects of these interactions?

Ecosystems are complex, interactive systems that include both biological communities (biotic) and physical (abiotic) components of the environment. As with individual organisms, a hierarchal structure exists groups of the same organisms (species) form populations, different populations interact to form communities, communities live within an ecosystem, and all of the ecosystems on Earth make up the biosphere. Organisms grow, reproduce, and perpetuate their species by obtaining necessary resources through interdependent relationships with other organisms and the physical environment. These same interactions can facilitate or restrain growth and enhance or limit the size of populations, maintaining the balance between available resources and those who consume them. These interactions can also change both biotic and abiotic characteristics of the environment. Like individual organisms, ecosystems are sustained by the continuous flow of energy, originating primarily from the sun, and the recycling of matter and nutrients within the system. Ecosystems are dynamic, experiencing shifts in population composition and abundance and changes in the physical environment over time, which ultimately affects the stability and resilience of the entire system.

LS2.A: INTERDEPENDENT RELATIONSHIPS IN ECOSYSTEMS

How do organisms interact with the living and nonliving environments to obtain matter and energy?

Ecosystems are ever changing because of the interdependence of organisms of the same or different species and the nonliving (physical) elements of the environment. Seeking matter and energy resources to sustain life, organisms in an ecosystem interact with one another in complex feeding hierarchies of producers, consumers, and decomposers, which together represent a food web. Interactions between organisms may be predatory, competitive, or mutually beneficial. Ecosystems have carrying capacities that limit the number of organisms (within populations) they can support. Individual survival and population sizes depend on such factors as predation, disease, availability of resources, and parameters of the physical environment. Organisms rely on physical factors, such as light, temperature, water, soil, and space for shelter and reproduction. Earth&rsquos varied combinations of these factors provide the physical environments in which its ecosystems (e.g., deserts, grasslands, rain forests, and coral reefs) develop and in which the diverse species of the planet live. Within any one ecosystem, the biotic interactions between organisms (e.g., competition, predation, and various types of facilitation, such as pollination) further influence their growth, survival, and reproduction, both individually and in terms of their populations.

Grade Band Endpoints for LS2.A

By the end of grade 2. Animals depend on their surroundings to get what they need, including food, water, shelter, and a favorable temperature. Animals depend on plants or other animals for food. They use their senses to find food and water, and they use their body parts to gather, catch, eat, and chew the food. Plants depend on air, water, minerals (in the soil), and light to grow. Animals can move around, but plants cannot, and they often depend on animals for pollination or to move their seeds around. Different plants survive better in different settings because they have varied needs for water, minerals, and sunlight.

By the end of grade 5. The food of almost any kind of animal can be traced back to plants. Organisms are related in food webs in which some animals eat plants

for food and other animals eat the animals that eat plants. Either way, they are &ldquoconsumers.&rdquo Some organisms, such as fungi and bacteria, break down dead organisms (both plants or plants parts and animals) and therefore operate as &ldquodecomposers.&rdquo Decomposition eventually restores (recycles) some materials back to the soil for plants to use. Organisms can survive only in environments in which their particular needs are met. A healthy ecosystem is one in which multiple species of different types are each able to meet their needs in a relatively stable web of life. Newly introduced species can damage the balance of an ecosystem.

By the end of grade 8. Organisms and populations of organisms are dependent on their environmental interactions both with other living things and with nonliving factors. Growth of organisms and population increases are limited by access to resources. In any ecosystem, organisms and populations with similar requirements for food, water, oxygen, or other resources may compete with each other for limited resources, access to which consequently constrains their growth and reproduction. Similarly, predatory interactions may reduce the number of organisms or eliminate whole populations of organisms. Mutually beneficial interactions, in contrast, may become so interdependent that each organism requires the other for survival. Although the species involved in these competitive, predatory, and mutually beneficial interactions vary across ecosystems, the patterns of interactions of organisms with their environments, both living and nonliving, are shared.

By the end of grade 12. Ecosystems have carrying capacities, which are limits to the numbers of organisms and populations they can support. These limits result from such factors as the availability of living and nonliving resources and from such challenges as predation, competition, and disease. Organisms would have the capacity to produce populations of great size were it not for the fact that environments and resources are finite. This fundamental tension affects the abundance (number of individuals) of species in any given ecosystem.

LS2.B: CYCLES OF MATTER AND ENERGY TRANSFER IN ECOSYSTEMS

How do matter and energy move through an ecosystem?

The cycling of matter and the flow of energy within ecosystems occur through interactions among different organisms and between organisms and the physical environment. All living systems need matter and energy. Matter fuels the energy-releasing chemical reactions that provide energy for life functions and provides the

material for growth and repair of tissue. Energy from light is needed for plants because the chemical reaction that produces plant matter from air and water requires an energy input to occur. Animals acquire matter from food, that is, from plants or other animals. The chemical elements that make up the molecules of organisms pass through food webs and the environment and are combined and recombined in different ways. At each level in a food web, some matter provides energy for life functions, some is stored in newly made structures, and much is discarded to the surrounding environment. Only a small fraction of the matter consumed at one level is captured by the next level up. As matter cycles and energy flows through living systems and between living systems and the physical environment, matter and energy are conserved in each change.

The carbon cycle provides an example of matter cycling and energy flow in ecosystems. Photosynthesis, digestion of plant matter, respiration, and decomposition are important components of the carbon cycle, in which carbon is exchanged between the biosphere, atmosphere, oceans, and geosphere through chemical, physical, geological, and biological processes.

Grade Band Endpoints for LS2.B

By the end of grade 2. Organisms obtain the materials they need to grow and survive from the environment. Many of these materials come from organisms and are used again by other organisms.

By the end of grade 5. Matter cycles between the air and soil and among plants, animals, and microbes as these organisms live and die. Organisms obtain gases, water, and minerals from the environment and release waste matter (gas, liquid, or solid) back into the environment.

By the end of grade 8. Food webs are models that demonstrate how matter and energy is transferred between producers (generally plants and other organisms that engage in photosynthesis), consumers, and decomposers as the three groups interact&mdashprimarily for food&mdashwithin an ecosystem. Transfers of matter into and out of the physical environment occur at every level&mdashfor example, when molecules from food react with oxygen captured from the environment, the carbon dioxide and water thus produced are transferred back to the environment, and ultimately so are waste products, such as fecal material. Decomposers recycle nutrients from dead plant or animal matter back to the soil in terrestrial environments or to the water in aquatic environments. The atoms that make up the

Ecosystems are sustained by the continuous flow of energy, originating primarily from the sun, and the recycling of matter and nutrients within the system.

organisms in an ecosystem are cycled repeatedly between the living and nonliving parts of the ecosystem.

By the end of grade 12. Photosynthesis and cellular respiration (including anaerobic processes) provide most of the energy for life processes. Plants or algae form the lowest level of the food web. At each link upward in a food web, only a small fraction of the matter consumed at the lower level is transferred upward, to produce growth and release energy in cellular respiration at the higher level. Given this inefficiency, there are generally fewer organisms at higher levels of a food web, and there is a limit to the number of organisms that an ecosystem can sustain.

The chemical elements that make up the molecules of organisms pass through food webs and into and out of the atmosphere and soil and are combined and recombined in different ways. At each link in an ecosystem, matter and energy are conserved some matter reacts to release energy for life functions, some matter is stored in newly made structures, and much is discarded. Competition among species is ultimately competition for the matter and energy needed for life.

Photosynthesis and cellular respiration are important components of the carbon cycle, in which carbon is exchanged between the biosphere, atmosphere, oceans, and geosphere through chemical, physical, geological, and biological processes.

LS2.C: ECOSYSTEM DYNAMICS, FUNCTIONING, AND RESILIENCE

What happens to ecosystems when the environment changes?

Ecosystems are dynamic in nature their characteristics fluctuate over time, depending on changes in the environment and in the populations of various species. Disruptions in the physical and biological components of an ecosystem&mdashwhich can lead to shifts in the types and numbers of the ecosystem&rsquos organisms, to the maintenance or the extinction of species, to the migration of species into or out of the region, or to the formation of new species (speciation)&mdashoccur for a

variety of natural reasons. Changes may derive from the fall of canopy trees in a forest, for example, or from cataclysmic events, such as volcanic eruptions. But many changes are induced by human activity, such as resource extraction, adverse land use patterns, pollution, introduction of nonnative species, and global climate change. Extinction of species or evolution of new species may occur in response to significant ecosystem disruptions.

Species in an environment develop behavioral and physiological patterns that facilitate their survival under the prevailing conditions, but these patterns may be maladapted when conditions change or new species are introduced. Ecosystems with a wide variety of species&mdashthat is, greater biodiversity&mdashtend to be more resilient to change than those with few species.

Grade Band Endpoints for LS2.C

By the end of grade 2. The places where plants and animals live often change, sometimes slowly and sometimes rapidly. When animals and plants get too hot or too cold, they may die. If they cannot find enough food, water, or air, they may die.

By the end of grade 5. When the environment changes in ways that affect a place&rsquos physical characteristics, temperature, or availability of resources, some organisms survive and reproduce, others move to new locations, yet others move into the transformed environment, and some die.

By the end of grade 8. Ecosystems are dynamic in nature their characteristics can vary over time. Disruptions to any physical or biological component of an ecosystem can lead to shifts in all of its populations.

Biodiversity describes the variety of species found in Earth&rsquos terrestrial and oceanic ecosystems. The completeness or integrity of an ecosystem&rsquos biodiversity is often used as a measure of its health.


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