Ma `lumot

Amman-Iordaniyadagi kichik xato

Amman-Iordaniyadagi kichik xato


We are searching data for your request:

Forums and discussions:
Manuals and reference books:
Data from registers:
Wait the end of the search in all databases.
Upon completion, a link will appear to access the found materials.

Men bu xatoni bu bahorda xonamda ko'p marta ko'rganman. Kimdir buni aniqlashga yordam bera oladimi?!


Kichkina hasharotlar parvozida moslashuvchan qarsak chalish va uchirish

Parvoz paytida tasvirga olingan hasharotlardan uzunligi 1 mm yoki undan kam bo'lgan hasharotlar har bir yuqoriga urilish oxirida qanotlarini bir-biriga uradi va har bir pastga tushishning boshida ularni bir-biridan ajratib turadi. Ushbu "qarsak chalish va yiqilish" harakati parvoz paytida hosil bo'ladigan ko'tarish kuchlarini oshiradi deb o'ylanadi. Oldingi ishda ta'kidlanmagan narsa shundaki, bu mayda hasharotlarga tegishli bo'lgan kam Reynolds sonida qanotlarni bir-biriga qarsak chalish va qanotlarni bir-biridan ajratish uchun juda katta kuchlar talab qilinadi. Ushbu maqolada biz qattiq va egiluvchan qanotlarda qarsak chalish va uchishni taqlid qilish uchun suvga cho'milgan chegara usulidan foydalanamiz. Qattiq qanotlar bilan uchish paytida hosil bo'ladigan tortishish kuchlari qanot va qanotning o'zaro ta'sirisiz hosil bo'ladigan kuchdan 10 baravar ko'p bo'lishi mumkinligini aniqlaymiz. Ikki qanotning harakati natijasida yuqoriga ko'tarilishning oxiri va pastga tushishning boshlanishida hosil bo'lgan kuchlarning gorizontal komponentlari bekor qilinganligi sababli, bu kuchlarni surish hosil qilish uchun ishlatib bo'lmaydi. Natijada, eng kichik uchuvchi hasharotlar uchun qarsak chalish va uchirish unchalik samarasiz bo'lib tuyuladi. Shuningdek, biz qanotlarga moslashuvchanlikni qo'shamiz va uchish paytida hosil bo'lgan maksimal tortishish kuchi taxminan 50% ga kamayishi mumkinligini aniqlaymiz. Ba'zi hollarda, hosil bo'lgan aniq ko'tarish kuchlari ham qattiq qanot korpusiga nisbatan yaxshilanadi.


Tarkib

Shira butun dunyo bo'ylab tarqalgan, lekin ko'pincha mo''tadil zonalarda uchraydi. Ko'pgina taksonlardan farqli o'laroq, shira turlarining xilma-xilligi tropiklarda mo''tadil zonalarga qaraganda ancha past. [2] Ular katta masofalarga, asosan, shamollar tomonidan passiv tarqalish orqali ko'chib o'tishlari mumkin. Qanotli shira ham kun davomida 600 m balandlikka ko'tarilishi mumkin, bu erda ular kuchli shamollar bilan ko'chiriladi. [3] [4] Masalan, smorodina-salat shirasi, Nasonovia ribisnigri, Yangi Zelandiyadan Tasmaniyaga taxminan 2004 yilda sharqiy shamollar orqali tarqaldi deb ishoniladi. [5] Shira, shuningdek, zararlangan o'simlik materiallarini odam tashish orqali tarqaldi, bu ularning tarqalishida ba'zi turlarni deyarli kosmopolit qiladi. [6]

Qazilma tarixini tahrirlash

Shira, shuningdek, bir-biriga yaqin bo'lgan adelgidlar va fillokseranlar, ehtimol, taxminan 280 million yil oldin, erta Perm davrida umumiy ajdoddan paydo bo'lgan. [8] Ular, ehtimol, Cordaitales yoki Cycadophyta kabi o'simliklar bilan oziqlangan. Yumshoq jismlari bilan shira yaxshi toshga aylanmaydi va ma'lum bo'lgan eng qadimgi qazilma bu turga tegishli. Triassoaphis cubitus Triasdan. [9] Biroq ular baʼzan oʻsimlik ekssudatlariga yopishib qolishadi va ular qahraboga aylanadi. 1967 yilda professor Ole Xey monografiyasini yozganida Fotoalbom shira bo'yicha tadqiqotlar, Trias, yura, bo'r va asosan uchlamchi davrlardan oltmishga yaqin tur tasvirlangan, Boltiq amberi esa yana qirq turga hissa qo'shgan. [10] Turlarning umumiy soni kichik edi, lekin 160 million yil oldin angiospermlarning paydo bo'lishi bilan sezilarli darajada oshdi, chunki bu shiralarning ixtisoslashuviga imkon berdi, shira turlarining turlari gulli o'simliklarning xilma-xilligi bilan birga boradi. Dastlabki shira, ehtimol, polifag bo'lib, keyinchalik monofagiya rivojlanadi. [11] Adelgidalarning ajdodlari ignabargli daraxtlarda yashagan, Aphididae esa Podocarpaceae yoki Araucariaceae shirasi bilan oziqlangan bo'lib, ular kech bo'r davrida yo'q bo'lib ketishdan omon qolgan. Kornikullar kabi organlar bo'r davrigacha paydo bo'lmagan. [8] [12] Bir tadqiqot muqobil ravishda ajdodlar shira angiosperm qobig'ida yashagan bo'lishi mumkinligini va barglar bilan oziqlanish olingan xususiyat bo'lishi mumkinligini ko'rsatadi. Lachninae po'stlog'ida yashash uchun mos bo'lgan uzun og'iz qismlariga ega va o'rta bo'r ajdodi angiosperm daraxtlari po'stlog'i bilan oziqlangan, bo'r davrining oxirida ignabargli uylarning barglariga o'tgan deb taxmin qilingan. [13] Phylloxeridae haligacha saqlanib qolgan eng qadimgi oila boʻlishi mumkin, ammo ularning qazilma qoldiqlari Quyi Miosen bilan cheklangan. Paleofillokseralar. [14]

Taksonomiyani tahrirlash

20-asr oxirida Hemiptera ichidagi qayta tasniflash eski "Homoptera" taksonini ikkita kichik turkumga qisqartirdi: Sternorrhyncha (shira, oq pashshalar, tarozilar, psyllidlar va boshqalar) va Auchenorrhyncha (cicadas, bargbarglar, daraxtzorlar, o'simliklar subtepalari va boshqalar). haqiqiy hasharotlar deb nomlanuvchi hasharotlarning katta guruhini o'z ichiga oladi. Sternorrhyncha ichidagi Aphidomorpha infratuzilmasi aylanaga qarab o'zgaradi, bir nechta toshga aylangan guruhlarni joylashtirish ayniqsa qiyin, ammo Adelgoidea, Aphidoidea va Phylloxeroidea kiradi. [15] Ba'zi mualliflar Phylloxeridae va Adelgidae ham kiritilgan Aphidoidea o'ta oilasidan foydalanadilar, boshqalari esa Adelgidae va Phylloxeridae joylashgan singlisi Phylloxeroidea superoilasiga ega Aphidoideaga ega. [16] 21-asr boshidagi qayta tasniflar Aphidoidea ichidagi oilalarni sezilarli darajada qayta tashkil etdi: ba'zi eski oilalar subfamila darajasiga tushirildi (masalan., Eriosomatidae) va ko'plab eski kichik oilalar oila darajasiga ko'tarilgan. Eng so'nggi nufuzli tasniflar uchta superfamiliyaga ega Adelgoidea, Phylloxeroidea va Aphidoidea. Aphidoidea barcha o'z ichiga olgan Aphididae bitta katta oilani o'z ichiga oladi

Filogeniya tahriri

Tashqi tahrirlash

Shira, adelgid va filokseridlar bir-biri bilan chambarchas bog'liq bo'lib, ularning barchasi o'simliklarni so'ruvchi hasharotlar - Sternorrhyncha kenja turkumiga kiradi. Ular Aphidoidea hasharotlar oilasiga [18] yoki Adelgidae oilasi va Phylloxeridae oilasini o'z ichiga olgan Phylloxeroidea super oilasiga joylashtiriladi. [11] Filoksera shira kabi uzum oʻsimliklarining ildizlari, barglari va novdalari bilan oziqlanadi, lekin shiradan farqli oʻlaroq, asal shudringi yoki kornikulyar sekretsiyalar hosil qilmaydi. [19] Filoksera (Daktulosphaira vitifoliae) 19-asrda Yevropa uzumchiligini vayron qilgan buyuk frantsuz vino kuyishiga sabab bo'lgan hasharotlardir. Xuddi shunday, adelgidlar yoki junli ignabargli shiralar ham o'simlik floemasi bilan oziqlanadi va ba'zan shira deb ta'riflanadi, lekin ularda kauda yoki kornikullar yo'qligi sababli, shiraga o'xshash hasharotlar sifatida yaxshiroq tasniflanadi. [20]

Guruhlarning, ayniqsa, qazilma guruhlarga nisbatan munosabati munosabatlarni hal qilishdagi qiyinchiliklar tufayli juda farq qiladi. Ko'pgina zamonaviy davolash usullari uchta superfamila, Adelogidea, Aphidoidea va Phylloxeroidea infratuzilmasi Aphidomorpha va bir nechta toshga aylangan guruhlarni o'z ichiga oladi [21], ammo boshqa davolash usullarida Aphidoidea o'z ichiga olgan Aphidomorpha Aphididae, Phylloxeridae va Adelphidoha oilalari mavjud. ikkita super oila, Aphidoidea va Phylloxeroidea, ikkinchisida Phylloxeridae va Adelgidae mavjud. Sternorrhynchaning filogenetik daraxti kichik bo'linma (18S) ribosomali RNK tahlilidan kelib chiqadi. [22]

Ichki tahrirlash

Papasotiropoulos 2013 va Kim 2011 asosidagi filogenetik daraxt, Ortiz-Rivas va Martinez-Torres 2009 qo'shimchalari bilan Aphididae ichki filogeniyasini ko'rsatadi. [23] [24] [25]

Shira guruhlari filogeniyasini ularning bakterial endosimbiontlari, ayniqsa majburiy endosimbionlari filogeniyasini tekshirish orqali aniqlash mumkinligi taxmin qilingan. Buchnera. Natijalar simbiontlar avlodlar orqali vertikal ravishda qat'iy ravishda uzatiladi degan taxminga bog'liq. Bu taxmin dalillar bilan yaxshi tasdiqlangan va endosimbiont tadqiqotlari asosida bir nechta filogenetik munosabatlar taklif qilingan. [26] [27] [28]

Aksariyat shiralarning yumshoq tanasi bor, ular yashil, qora, jigarrang, pushti yoki deyarli rangsiz bo'lishi mumkin. Shiralarda ikkita qisqa, keng bazal segment va to'rttagacha ingichka terminal segmentlari bo'lgan antennalar mavjud. Ularning bir juft murakkab ko'zlari bor, har bir ko'zning orqasida va tepasida ko'z tuberkulasi uchta linzadan iborat (triommatidiya deb ataladi). [11] Ular hasharotlar ogʻiz aʼzolarining mandibula va ustki suyagi modifikatsiyasidan hosil boʻlgan rostrum deb ataladigan qobiq bilan oʻralgan stilet deb ataladigan soʻruvchi ogʻiz qismlari yordamida sharbat bilan oziqlanadi. [29]

Ularning uzun, ingichka oyoqlari ikki bo'g'imli, ikki tirnoqli tarsi bor. Shiralarning aksariyati qanotsiz, ammo qanotli shakllar ko'plab turlarda yilning ma'lum vaqtlarida hosil bo'ladi. Aksariyat shiralarning beshinchi qorin segmentining dorsal yuzasida bir juft kornikullar (siphunculi), qorin bo'shlig'i naychalari mavjud bo'lib, ular orqali ular tarkibida triatsilgliserollarni o'z ichiga olgan kornikul mumi deb ataladigan tez qotib qoladigan himoya suyuqligi [29] tomchilari chiqariladi. Boshqa mudofaa birikmalari ham ayrim turlar tomonidan ishlab chiqarilishi mumkin. [20] Shiraning toʻgʻri ichak teshigi ustidagi dumiga oʻxshash oʻsimtasi bor. [11] [30]

Xost o'simlik sifati yomonlashganda yoki sharoit to'la bo'lganda, ba'zi shira turlari boshqa oziq-ovqat manbalariga tarqalib ketishi mumkin bo'lgan qanotli nasllarni (alates) hosil qiladi. Og'iz bo'shlig'i yoki ko'zlar ba'zi tur va shakllarda kichik yoki etishmayotgan bo'lishi mumkin. [20]

Ko'pgina aphid turlari monofagdir (ya'ni ular faqat bitta o'simlik turi bilan oziqlanadi). Boshqalar, masalan, yashil shaftoli aphid, ko'plab oilalarda yuzlab o'simlik turlari bilan oziqlanadi. Turlarning taxminan 10% yilning turli vaqtlarida turli o'simliklar bilan oziqlanadi. [31]

Yangi xost o'simlik qanotli kattalar tomonidan vizual signallar yordamida tanlanadi, so'ngra antennalar yordamida hidlash, agar o'simlik to'g'ri hidlasa, keyingi harakat qo'nayotganda sirtni tekshirishdir. Stylus kiritiladi va tupurik chiqariladi, sharbatdan namuna olinadi, ksilema tatib ko'riladi va nihoyat floema tekshiriladi. Shira tupurigi floemani yopish mexanizmlarini inhibe qilishi mumkin va penetratsiyani osonlashtiradigan pektinazlarga ega. [32] Xost bo'lmagan o'simliklar zondning har qanday bosqichida rad etilishi mumkin, ammo viruslarning ko'chishi tergov jarayonining boshida, so'lakni kiritish vaqtida sodir bo'ladi, shuning uchun xos bo'lmagan o'simliklar infektsiyalanishi mumkin. [31]

Shira odatda o'simliklardagi floema tomirlari sharbati bilan passiv oziqlanadi, shuningdek, ko'plab boshqa hemipteranlar, masalan, hasharotlar va tsikadalar. Floema idishi teshilgandan so'ng, bosim ostida bo'lgan sharbat shiraning oziq-ovqat kanaliga o'tadi. Ba'zida shira ksilema sharbatini ham yutadi, bu floema sharbatidan ko'ra ko'proq suyultiriladi, chunki shakar va aminokislotalarning konsentratsiyasi floema tarkibidagi 1% ni tashkil qiladi. [33] [34] Ksilem sharbati salbiy gidrostatik bosim ostida va faol so'rishni talab qiladi, bu shira fiziologiyasida muhim rol o'ynaydi. [35] Suvsizlanish davridan keyin ksilem sharbatini iste'mol qilish kuzatilganligi sababli, shira suv muvozanatini to'ldirish uchun ksilem sharbatini iste'mol qiladi va shira regidratlanishiga imkon beradigan suyultirilgan sharbat iste'mol qiladi. [36] Biroq, so'nggi ma'lumotlar shuni ko'rsatdiki, shira kutilganidan ko'ra ko'proq ksilema sharbatini iste'mol qiladi va ular, ayniqsa, suvsizlanmaganlarida va ularning hosildorligi pasayganda buni qilishadi. Bu shuni ko'rsatadiki, shira va potentsial ravishda, Hemiptera guruhining floem sharbati bilan oziqlanadigan barcha turlari suv balansini to'ldirishdan tashqari boshqa sabablarga ko'ra ksilem sharbatini iste'mol qiladi. [37] Shira bosim ostida bo'lgan floema sharbatini passiv ravishda qabul qilsa-da, ular boshlarida mavjud bo'lgan kibarial-faringeal nasos mexanizmidan foydalanib, manfiy yoki atmosfera bosimida suyuqlik olishlari mumkin. [38]

Ksilem sharbatini iste'mol qilish osmoregulyatsiya bilan bog'liq bo'lishi mumkin. [37] Yuqori saxaroza kontsentratsiyasi tufayli oshqozondagi yuqori osmotik bosim gemolimfadan oshqozonga suv o'tishiga olib kelishi mumkin, bu esa giperosmotik stressga olib keladi va oxir-oqibat hasharotning o'limiga olib keladi. Shira bir nechta jarayonlar orqali osmoregulyatsiya qilish orqali bu taqdirdan qochadi. Saxaroza kontsentratsiyasi to'g'ridan-to'g'ri sukrozni metabolizmga o'zlashtirish va bir nechta saxaroza molekulalaridan oligosakkaridlarni sintez qilish orqali kamayadi, shu bilan erigan moddalarning konsentratsiyasi va natijada osmotik bosim kamayadi. [39] [40] Keyin oligosakkaridlar asal shudringi orqali chiqariladi, bu uning yuqori shakar konsentratsiyasini tushuntiradi, keyinchalik chumolilar kabi boshqa hayvonlar tomonidan ishlatilishi mumkin. Bundan tashqari, suv osmotik bosim allaqachon pasaygan orqa ichakdan oshqozon tarkibini suyultirish uchun oshqozonga o'tkaziladi. [41] Oxir-oqibat, shira oshqozon osmotik bosimini suyultirish uchun ksilem sharbatini iste'mol qiladi. [37] Bu jarayonlarning barchasi sinergetik tarzda ishlaydi va shira yuqori saxaroza konsentratsiyali o'simlik sharbati bilan oziqlanishiga, shuningdek, turli saxaroza konsentrasiyalariga moslashishiga imkon beradi. [37]

O'simlik shirasi shira uchun muvozanatsiz oziq-ovqat hisoblanadi, chunki unda muhim aminokislotalar yo'q, barcha hayvonlar kabi shira sintez qila olmaydi va saxaroza yuqori konsentratsiyasi tufayli yuqori osmotik bosimga ega. [34] [42] Muhim aminokislotalar shira uchun maxsus hujayralar, bakteriotsitlar ichida joylashgan bakterial endosimbiontlar tomonidan beriladi. [43] Bu simbionlar o'z uy egasining metabolik chiqindilari bo'lgan glutamatni muhim aminokislotalarga aylantiradi. [44] [45]

Shiralarning ayrim turlari zamburug'lardan gorizontal gen o'tkazish yo'li bilan qizil karotenoidlarni sintez qilish qobiliyatiga ega bo'lgan. [46] Ular ikki nuqtali oʻrgimchak oqadilar va sharqona shoxdan boshqa bunday qobiliyatga ega boʻlgan yagona hayvonlardir. [47] O'zlarining karotenoidlari yordamida shira quyosh energiyasini o'zlashtira oladi va uni o'z hujayralari ishlatadigan ATP shakliga aylantira oladi. Bu hayvonlarda fotoheterotrofiyaning yagona ma'lum namunasidir. Shiradagi karotin pigmentlari quyosh nurini olish uchun ideal tarzda joylashtirilgan kesikula yuzasiga yaqin qatlam hosil qiladi. Qo'zg'atilgan karotinoidlar NADni energiya uchun mitoxondriyalarda oksidlangan NADH ga kamaytiradi. [48]

Eng oddiy reproduktiv strategiya - shira butun yil davomida bitta xo'jayinga ega bo'lishidir. Bunda u jinsiy va aseksual avlodlar (holotsiklik) o'rtasida almashinishi mumkin yoki muqobil ravishda, barcha yoshlar partenogenez orqali hosil bo'lishi mumkin, tuxum qo'yilmaydi (anholotsiklik). Ba'zi turlar turli sharoitlarda ham holosiklik, ham anholotsiklik populyatsiyalarga ega bo'lishi mumkin, ammo ma'lum bo'lgan aphid turlari faqat jinsiy yo'l bilan ko'paymaydi. [50] Jinsiy va aseksual avlodlarning almashinishi qayta-qayta rivojlangan boʻlishi mumkin. [51]

Biroq, shira ko'payishi ko'pincha bundan murakkabroq va turli uy o'simliklari o'rtasida migratsiyani o'z ichiga oladi. Taxminan 10% turda shira qishlaydigan yog'ochli (birlamchi xo'jayinlar) va yozda mo'l-ko'l ko'payadigan o'tli (ikkilamchi) o'simliklar o'rtasida almashinish mavjud. [20] [50] Bir nechta turlar askar kastasini hosil qilishi mumkin, boshqa turlar turli xil muhit sharoitlarida keng polifenizmni namoyon qiladi va ba'zilari tashqi omillarga qarab o'z avlodlarining jinsiy nisbatini nazorat qila oladi. [52]

Odatda, murakkab reproduktiv strategiyadan foydalanilganda, mavsumiy tsiklning boshida populyatsiyada faqat urg'ochilar mavjud (garchi hozirgi vaqtda shiraning bir nechta turlari erkak va urg'ochi jinslarga ega ekanligi aniqlangan). Bahorda chiqadigan qishlash tuxumlari urg'ochilarni keltirib chiqaradi, ular fundatrices (poya onalar) deb ataladi. Ko'payish odatda erkaklarni o'z ichiga olmaydi (partenogenez) va tirik tug'ilishga olib keladi (viviparity). [53] Tirik yoshlar psevdoplasental viviparity tomonidan ishlab chiqariladi, bu tuxumlarning rivojlanishi, sarig'i yetishmaydi, embrionlar yo'ldosh vazifasini bajaradigan to'qima bilan oziqlanadi. Yosh bolalar tuxumdan chiqqandan keyin tez orada onadan chiqadi. [54]

Tuxumlar partenogenetik yo'l bilan meiozsiz ishlab chiqariladi [55] [53] va nasl onalariga klonlanadi, shuning uchun ularning barchasi urg'ochi (thelytoky). [11] [54] Embrionlar onalarning tuxumdonlarida rivojlanadi, soʻngra ular tirik (allaqachon tuxumdan chiqqan) birinchi davrdagi ayol nimfalarni tugʻadilar. Tuxumlar ovulyatsiyadan so'ng darhol rivojlana boshlaganligi sababli, kattalar urg'ochi rivojlanayotgan ayol nimfalarni joylashtirishi mumkin, ularning ichida allaqachon partenogenetik rivojlanayotgan embrionlar (ya'ni, ular homilador bo'lib tug'iladi). Avlodlarning bunday teleskopi shiralarning sonining tez ko'payishiga imkon beradi. Nasl ota-onasiga kattaligidan tashqari har jihatdan o'xshaydi. Shunday qilib, ayolning dietasi ikki avloddan (qizlari va nabiralari) tana hajmiga va tug'ilish tezligiga ta'sir qilishi mumkin. [11] [56] [57]

Bu jarayon yoz davomida takrorlanib, odatda 20 dan 40 kungacha yashaydigan bir nechta avlodlarni hosil qiladi. Masalan, karam shirasining ba'zi turlari (masalan Brevicoryne brassicae) bir mavsumda 41 tagacha urg'ochi avlod tug'ishi mumkin. Shunday qilib, bahorda tuxumdan chiqqan bitta urg'ochi nazariy jihatdan milliardlab avlodlarni berishi mumkin, agar ularning hammasi omon qolsa. [58]

Kuzda shira jinsiy yo'l bilan ko'payadi va tuxum qo'yadi. Atrof-muhit omillari, masalan, fotoperiod va haroratning o'zgarishi yoki, ehtimol, pastroq oziq-ovqat miqdori yoki sifati, ayollarda partenogenetik ravishda jinsiy urg'ochi va erkaklar hosil bo'lishiga olib keladi. [55] Erkaklar genetik jihatdan onalari bilan bir xildir, bundan tashqari, shira X0 jinsini aniqlash tizimi bilan ularda jinsiy xromosoma kamroq bo'ladi. [55] Bu jinsiy shira qanotlari yoki hatto og'iz bo'shlig'i bo'lmasligi mumkin. [20] Jinsiy urgʻochilar va erkaklar juftlashadi, urgʻochilar esa onadan tashqarida rivojlanadigan tuxum qoʻyadi. Tuxumlar qishda omon qoladi va keyingi bahorda qanotli (alate) yoki qanotsiz urg'ochilarga aylanadi. Bu, masalan, atirgul aphidining hayot aylanishida sodir bo'ladi (Makrosiphum rosae), bu oilaga xos deb hisoblanishi mumkin. Biroq, issiq muhitda, masalan, tropik yoki issiqxonada, shira ko'p yillar davomida jinssiz ko'payishda davom etishi mumkin. [29]

Partenogenez orqali jinssiz koʻpayadigan shira genetik jihatdan bir xil qanotli va qanotsiz urgʻochi naslga ega boʻlishi mumkin. Nazorat murakkab bo'lib, ba'zi shiralar o'zlarining hayot davrlari davomida qanotli yoki qanotsiz shakllarni ishlab chiqarishni genetik nazorat (polimorfizm) va atrof-muhit nazorati (polifenizm) o'rtasida almashadilar. [59] Qanotli nasl odatda noqulay yoki stressli sharoitlarda ko'proq ishlab chiqariladi. Ba'zi turlar past oziq-ovqat sifati yoki miqdoriga javoban qanotli nasl hosil qiladi. masalan. mezbon o'simlik qarishni boshlaganda. [60] Qanotli urg'ochilar yangi uy o'simlikida yangi koloniyalar yaratish uchun ko'chib ketishadi. Masalan, olma shirasi (Aphis pomi), qanotsiz urg'ochilarning ko'p avlodlarini ishlab chiqargandan so'ng, odatdagi oziq-ovqat o'simlikining boshqa shoxlari yoki daraxtlariga uchib ketadigan qanotli shakllar paydo bo'ladi. [61] Ladybuglar, lacewings, parazitoid ari yoki boshqa yirtqichlar tomonidan hujumga uchragan shira ularning nasl ishlab chiqarish dinamikasini o'zgartirishi mumkin. Shira bu yirtqichlar tomonidan hujumga uchraganda, kornikullardan ogohlantiruvchi feromonlar, xususan, beta-farnesen chiqariladi. Ushbu signal feromonlari shira turiga qarab, piyoda yurish va uy egasi o'simlikni tashlab yuborishni o'z ichiga olishi mumkin bo'lgan bir nechta xatti-harakatlarni o'zgartirishga olib keladi. Bundan tashqari, ogohlantiruvchi feromon idroki shirani qanotli nasllarni ishlab chiqarishga undashi mumkin, bu esa o'simlikni xavfsizroq oziqlantirish joyini izlab tark etishi mumkin. [62] Shira uchun juda zararli bo'lishi mumkin bo'lgan virusli infektsiyalar, shuningdek, qanotli nasllarning paydo bo'lishiga olib kelishi mumkin. [63] Masalan, Densovirus infektsiya pushti olma shirasiga salbiy ta'sir qiladi (Dysaphis plantaginea) ko'payish, lekin virusni yangi xost o'simliklariga osonroq o'tkazishi mumkin bo'lgan qanotli shira rivojlanishiga hissa qo'shadi. [64] Bundan tashqari, shira ichida yashovchi simbiotik bakteriyalar atrof-muhitning stress omillariga ta'sir qilish asosida shira reproduktiv strategiyasini o'zgartirishi mumkin. [65]

Kuzda mezbonlar bilan almashinadigan (heteroik) aphid turlari hayot tsiklining jinsiy qismi uchun turli uy o'simliklariga uchib ketadigan maxsus qanotli avlodni hosil qiladi. Parvozsiz ayol va erkak jinsiy shakllari ishlab chiqariladi va tuxum qo'yadi. [66] kabi ba'zi turlari Aphis fabae (qora loviya shira), Metopolophium dirhodum (atirgul donining aphidi), Myzus persicae (shaftoli-kartoshka aphidi) va Rhopalosiphum padi (qush olchasi-yulaf aphidi) jiddiy zararkunandalardir. Ular yozda daraxtlar yoki butalardagi asosiy uy egalarida qishlashadi, ular o't o'simliklarida, ko'pincha ekinlarda o'zlarining ikkilamchi uy egasiga ko'chib o'tadilar, keyin ginoparae kuzda daraxtga qaytadi. Yana bir misol, soya shirasi (Aphis glitsinlari). Kuz yaqinlashganda, soya o'simliklari pastdan yuqoriga qarab qarishni boshlaydi. Shira yuqoriga ko'tarilib, qanotli shakllarni ishlab chiqarishni boshlaydi, birinchi navbatda urg'ochi, keyin esa erkaklar, ular asosiy uy egasi bo'lgan shingilga uchib ketishadi. Bu yerda ular juftlashadi va tuxum sifatida qishlaydi. [49]

Chumolilarning o'zaro munosabati Tahrirlash

Chumolilarning ba'zi turlari shira bilan oziqlanadi, ularni oziqlanadigan o'simliklarda himoya qiladi va asal sharbatini iste'mol qilganda, shira ovqat hazm qilish yo'llarining tugashidan chiqaradi. Bu o'zaro munosabatlardir, bu sut beruvchi chumolilar shirani antennalari bilan silash orqali sog'ishadi. [b] [67] Garchi o'zaro bog'liq bo'lsa-da, shiralarning ovqatlanishi chumolilar ishtirokida o'zgaradi. Chumolilar ishtirok etadigan shira ko'proq aminokislotalarga ega bo'lgan kichik tomchilarda asal shudring ishlab chiqarishni ko'paytiradi. [68]

Ba'zi dehqon chumoli turlari shira tuxumlarini qishda o'z uyalarida to'playdi va saqlaydi. Bahorda chumolilar yangi chiqqan shiralarni yana o'simliklarga olib boradi. Sut beruvchi chumolilarning ba'zi turlari (masalan, Yevropa sariq o'tloqi chumolisi, Lasius flavus) [69] chumolilar koloniyasidagi oʻsimliklarning ildizlari bilan oziqlanadigan shiralarning katta podalarini boshqaradi. Yangi koloniya qurish uchun ketayotgan qirolichalar yangi koloniyada er osti shira podasini topish uchun shira tuxumini olib ketishadi. Bu dehqon chumolilari shira yirtqichlariga qarshi kurashib, shiralarni himoya qiladi. [67]

Chumolilar va shira munosabatlaridagi qiziqarli o'zgarish lycaenid kapalaklarini o'z ichiga oladi Myrmica chumolilar. Masalan, Niphanda fusca kapalaklar chumolilar shira podalarini boqadigan o'simliklar ustiga tuxum qo'yadi. Tuxumlari shira bilan oziqlanadigan tırtıllar shaklida chiqadi. Chumolilar shirani tırtıllardan himoya qilmaydi, chunki tırtıllar chumolilarni aldab, ularga chumolilar kabi munosabatda bo'lishga va tırtıllarni uyalariga olib kirishga majburlaydigan feromon ishlab chiqaradi. U yerga borgach, chumolilar tırtılları oziqlantiradi, bu esa chumolilar uchun asal shudring hosil qiladi. Tırtıllar to'liq hajmga yetganda, ular koloniyaning kirish qismiga sudralib boradi va pilla hosil qiladi. Ikki hafta o'tgach, kattalar kapalaklar paydo bo'ladi va parvoz qiladi. Bu vaqtda chumolilar kapalaklarga hujum qiladi, lekin kapalaklarning qanotlarida junga o‘xshash yopishqoq modda bor bo‘lib, ular chumolilarning jag‘larini o‘chirib, kapalaklarga zarar yetkazmasdan uchib ketishlariga imkon beradi. [70] Ignabargli oʻrmonlardagi baʼzi asalarilar oʻrmon asalini tayyorlash uchun shira toʻplaydi. [29]

Yana bir chumoliga taqlid qiluvchi o't shirasi, Paracletus cimiciformis (Eriosomatinae), bir xil klonning ikkita morfini o'z ichiga olgan murakkab qo'shaloq strategiyani ishlab chiqdi va Tetramoriy chumolilar. Dumaloq morfning shirasi boshqa ko'plab shira kabi chumolilarni ularni dehqonchilik qilishiga olib keladi. Yassi morf shira agressiv taqlidga ega bo'lib, "qo'y terisini kiygan bo'ri" strategiyasiga ega: ularning kesikulasida chumolilarnikiga taqlid qiladigan uglevodorodlar mavjud va chumolilar ularni chumolilar uyasining nasl xonasiga olib kirib, chumoli lichinkalari kabi ko'taradi. . U yerga kelganida, tekis morf shira o'zini yirtqichlar kabi tutadi, chumoli lichinkalarining tana suyuqliklarini ichadi. [71]

Bakterial endosimbioz Tahrirlash

Mikroorganizmlar bilan endosimbioz hasharotlarda keng tarqalgan bo'lib, hasharotlar turlarining 10% dan ortig'i o'zlarining rivojlanishi va yashashi uchun hujayra ichidagi bakteriyalarga tayanadi. [72] Shira vertikal ravishda uzatiladigan (ota-onadan avlodga) ​​majburiy simbiozni saqlaydi. Buchnera aphidicola, birlamchi simbiont, ixtisoslashgan hujayralar ichidagi bakteriotsitlar. [73] Beshta bakteriya genlari shira yadrosiga o'tgan. [74] Dastlabki assotsiatsiya 280-160 million yil oldin umumiy ajdodda paydo bo'lgan bo'lishi mumkin va shiralarga tomir o'simliklarining floem-saplari bilan oziqlanadigan yangi ekologik joydan foydalanishga imkon bergan. B. aphidicola o'z xo'jayinini o'simlik sharbatida past konsentratsiyalarda mavjud bo'lgan muhim aminokislotalar bilan ta'minlaydi. [75] Endosimbiontlarning metabolitlari ham asal shudringi bilan chiqariladi. [76] Barqaror hujayra ichidagi sharoitlar, shuningdek, bir nechta bakteriyalarni onadan har bir nimfaga o'tkazish jarayonida yuzaga keladigan to'siq ta'siri mutatsiyalar va genlarni yo'q qilish ehtimolini oshiradi. [77] [78] Natijada, hajmi B. aphidicola genom, taxminiy ajdodi bilan solishtirganda ancha kamayadi. [79] Qisqartirilgan genomda transkripsiya omillarining aniq yo'qolishiga qaramay, normal sharoitda turli genlar o'rtasidagi ekspressiya darajasining o'n baravar o'zgarishi bilan ko'rinib turganidek, gen ekspressiyasi yuqori darajada tartibga solinadi. [80] Buchnera aphidicola gen transkripsiyasi, garchi yaxshi tushunilmagan bo'lsa-da, oz sonli global transkripsiya regulyatorlari va/yoki shira xostidan oziq moddalar ta'minoti orqali boshqariladi deb hisoblanadi. [81]

Ba'zi shira koloniyalarida ikkilamchi yoki fakultativ (ixtiyoriy qo'shimcha) bakterial simbiontlar ham mavjud. Bular vertikal ravishda, ba'zan esa gorizontal ravishda ham uzatiladi (bir nasldan ikkinchisiga va ehtimol bir turdan ikkinchisiga). [82] [83] Hozirgacha faqat baʼzi ikkilamchi simbiontlarning roli tasvirlangan. Regiella insecticola xost-o'simlik oralig'ini aniqlashda rol o'ynaydi, [84] [85] Hamiltonella himoyasi parazitoidlarga qarshilik ko'rsatadi, lekin u o'z navbatida bakteriofag APSE tomonidan infektsiyalanganida, [86] [87] va Serratia simbiotica issiqlikning zararli ta'sirini oldini oladi. [88]

Yirtqichlar tahriri

Shira ko'plab qushlar va hasharotlar yirtqichlari tomonidan iste'mol qilinadi. Shimoliy Karolinadagi fermada o'tkazilgan tadqiqotda o'tkinchi qushlarning olti turi ular orasida kuniga bir millionga yaqin shira iste'mol qilgan, eng yaxshi yirtqichlar amerikalik tilla qush bo'lib, shira uning ratsionining 83 foizini tashkil qiladi va vesper chumchuq. [89] Shiraga hujum qiladigan hasharotlarga yirtqich ladybirdlarning kattalari va lichinkalari, hoverfly lichinkalari, parazit ari, shira lichinkalari, "shira sherlari" (yashil to'r qanotlarining lichinkalari) va o'rgimchaklar kabi araxnidlar kiradi. Ladybirds orasida, Myzia oblongoguttata faqat ignabargli shira bilan oziqlanadigan parhez mutaxassisi, holbuki Adalia bipunctata va Coccinella septempunctata ko'p sonli turlar bilan oziqlanadigan generalistlardir. Tuxumlar partiyalarda qo'yiladi, har bir urg'ochi bir necha yuzdan tuxum qo'yadi. Urg'ochi pashshalar bir necha ming tuxum qo'yadi. Kattalar gulchang va nektar bilan oziqlanadilar, lekin lichinkalar shira bilan to'yib ovqatlanadilar Eupeodes corollae qo'yilgan tuxum sonini shira koloniyasining o'lchamiga moslashtiradi. [90]

Shira ko'pincha bakteriyalar, viruslar va zamburug'lar tomonidan yuqtiriladi. Ularga yog'ingarchilik, [91] harorat [92] va shamol kabi ob-havo ta'sir qiladi. [93] Shiraga hujum qiluvchi zamburug'lar kiradi Neozigit fresenii, Entomoftora, Beauveria bassiana, Metarhizium anisopliae, va kabi entomopatogen zamburug'lar Lecanicillium lecanii. Shira mikroskopik sporalarga qarshi cho'tkasi. Bular shiraga yopishib, unib chiqadi va shira terisiga kirib boradi. Qo'ziqorin shira gemolimfasida o'sadi. Taxminan uch kundan keyin aphid o'ladi va qo'ziqorin havoga ko'proq spora chiqaradi. Infektsiyalangan shira junsimon massa bilan qoplangan bo'lib, shira qoplanmaguncha asta-sekin qalinlashadi. Ko'pincha, ko'rinadigan qo'ziqorin aphidni o'ldirgan emas, balki ikkilamchi infektsiyadir. [91]

Noqulay ob-havo, masalan, kechki bahor muzlashi tufayli shira osongina o'lishi mumkin. [94] Haddan tashqari issiqlik ba'zi shiralar bog'liq bo'lgan simbiotik bakteriyalarni o'ldiradi, bu esa shiralarni bepusht qiladi. [95] Yomg'ir qanotli shira tarqalishiga to'sqinlik qiladi va o'simliklardan shiralarni uradi va shu bilan ularni ta'sirdan yoki ochlikdan o'ldiradi, [91] [96] [97], lekin shira nazorati uchun tayanib bo'lmaydi. [98]

Yirtqichlarga qarshi himoya vositalari Tahrirlash

Aksariyat shiralar yirtqichlardan kam himoyaga ega. Ba'zi turlar o'simlik to'qimalari bilan o'zaro ta'sirlanib, o't pufagini hosil qiladi, o'simlik to'qimalarining g'ayritabiiy shishishi. Shira o't ichida yashashi mumkin, bu esa yirtqichlardan va elementlardan himoya qiladi. Ma'lumki, shiraning bir qator turlari maxsus "askar" shakllarini, o'tni bosqindan himoya qiluvchi himoya xususiyatlariga ega steril nimfalarni ishlab chiqaradi. [29] [99] [100] Masalan, Aleksandrning shoxli shirasi qattiq ekzoskelet va qisqichbaqasimon ogʻiz qismlariga ega boʻlgan askar aphidlarining bir turi. [70] : 144 junli shira, Kolofina klematis, ladybirds, hoverflies va gul hasharotlarining lichinkalarini o'ldiradigan, shira koloniyasini himoya qiluvchi birinchi "askar" lichinkalariga ega. Anthocoris nemoralis ularning ustiga chiqish va stiletlarini kiritish orqali. [101]

Garchi shira hayot aylanishining ko'p qismida ucha olmasa ham, ular o'simlikni erga tashlab, yirtqichlardan va o'txo'rlar tomonidan tasodifiy yutishdan qochib qutula oladilar. [102] Boshqa turlar tuproqdan doimiy himoya sifatida foydalanadi, ildizlarning qon tomir tizimlari bilan oziqlanadi va butun umri davomida er ostida qoladi. Ularga ko'pincha chumolilar tashrif buyurishadi, chunki ular ishlab chiqaradigan asal suvi va chumolilar o'zlarining tunnellari orqali o'simlikdan o'simlikka ko'chiriladi. [89]

"Junli shira" (Eriosomatinae) deb nomlanuvchi shiraning ba'zi turlari himoya qilish uchun "momiq mum qoplamasi" ni chiqaradi. [29] Hammayoqni shirasi, Brevicoryne brassicae, o'z xostidan ikkilamchi metabolitlarni sekvestr qiladi, ularni saqlaydi va yirtqichlarni qaytarish uchun shiddatli kimyoviy reaktsiya va kuchli xantal moyi hidini keltirib chiqaradigan kimyoviy moddalarni chiqaradi. [103] Shira, Thaumatins tomonidan ishlab chiqarilgan peptidlar, ularni ba'zi zamburug'larga qarshilik ko'rsatadi deb taxmin qilinadi. [104]

Bir vaqtlar kornikullar asal shudringining manbai deb taxmin qilish odatiy hol edi va bu hatto o'z ichiga ham kiritilgan. Qisqaroq Oksford inglizcha lug'ati [105] va 2008 yil nashri Jahon kitob ensiklopediyasi. [106] Darhaqiqat, asal shudring sekretsiyasi shira anusidan ishlab chiqariladi, [107] kornikullar esa asosan mum kabi himoya kimyoviy moddalarini ishlab chiqaradi. Ba'zi hollarda kornikul mumi shira yirtqichlarini o'ziga jalb qiladigan dalillar mavjud. [108]

ning ba'zi klonlari Aphis craccivora invaziv va dominant yirtqich ladybird uchun etarlicha zaharli Harmonia aksyridis uni mahalliy darajada bostirish uchun, boshqa ladybird turlarini afzal ko'rgan holda, bu holda toksiklik dominant yirtqich turlariga xosdir. [109]

Parazitoidlarni tahrirlash

Shira ko'p va keng tarqalgan bo'lib, ko'p sonli parazitoidlarga xos bo'lib xizmat qiladi, ularning aksariyati juda kichik (uzunligi taxminan 0,1 dyuym (2,5 mm)) parazitoid ari. [110] Bir tur, Aphis ruborum, masalan, parazitoid arilarning kamida 12 turiga mezbonlik qiladi. [111] Parazitoidlar biologik nazorat agentlari sifatida intensiv ravishda tekshirilgan va ularning ko'plari shu maqsadda tijorat maqsadlarida qo'llaniladi. [112]

O'simlik shirasining o'zaro ta'siri Tahrirlash

O'simliklar shira hujumiga qarshi mahalliy va tizimli himoyani o'rnatadi. Ba'zi o'simliklardagi yosh barglar hujumga to'sqinlik qiladigan kimyoviy moddalarni o'z ichiga oladi, eski barglar esa bu qarshilikni yo'qotgan, boshqa o'simlik turlarida esa qarshilik eski to'qimalar tomonidan olinadi va yosh kurtaklar zaifdir. Ekilgan piyozdan uchuvchi mahsulotlar terpenoidlarni ishlab chiqarishni rag'batlantirish orqali qo'shni kartoshka o'simliklariga shira hujumining oldini olishi ko'rsatildi, bu an'anaviy ekish amaliyotida qo'llaniladigan foyda, zararlangan o'simliklar bilan qo'shni o'simliklar esa ildiz o'sishining kengayishi hisobiga ko'paygan. havo qismlari. [31] Yovvoyi kartoshka, Solanum berthaultii, shira ogohlantiruvchi feromoni, (E)-b-farnesen, allomon sifatida, hujumni oldini olish uchun feromon ishlab chiqaradi, u shirani samarali qaytaradi. Myzus persicae 3 millimetrgacha bo'lgan masofada. [113] S. berthaultii va boshqa yovvoyi kartoshka turlari shira tomonidan sindirilganda, o'simlik bilan zararlangan shiralarning taxminan 30% ni harakatsiz qoldiradigan yopishqoq suyuqlikni chiqaradigan bezli tuklar shaklida shiraga qarshi qo'shimcha himoyaga ega. [114]

Shira zarar ko'rsatadigan o'simliklar o'sish sur'atlarining pasayishi, barglarning xiralashishi, sarg'ayishi, o'sishning sekinlashishi, barglarning jingalaklanishi, qorayishi, so'lishi, past hosildorlik va o'lim kabi turli alomatlarga ega bo'lishi mumkin. Shirani olib tashlash o'simlikda quvvat etishmasligini keltirib chiqaradi va shira tupurig'i o'simliklar uchun zaharli hisoblanadi. Shira ko'pincha o'simlik viruslarini o'z egalariga, masalan, kartoshka, don, qand lavlagi va sitrus o'simliklariga uzatadi. [29] Yashil shaftoli shirasi, Myzus persicae, 110 dan ortiq o'simlik viruslari uchun vektor hisoblanadi. Paxta shirasi (Aphis gossypii) ko'pincha shakarqamish, papayya va yeryong'oqlarni viruslar bilan yuqtiradi. [20] In plants which produce the phytoestrogen coumestrol, such as alfalfa, damage by aphids is linked with higher concentrations of coumestrol. [115]

The coating of plants with honeydew can contribute to the spread of fungi which can damage plants. [116] [117] Honeydew produced by aphids has been observed to reduce the effectiveness of fungicides as well. [118]

A hypothesis that insect feeding may improve plant fitness was floated in the mid-1970s by Owen and Wiegert. It was felt that the excess honeydew would nourish soil micro-organisms, including nitrogen fixers. In a nitrogen-poor environment, this could provide an advantage to an infested plant over an uninfested plant. However, this does not appear to be supported by observational evidence. [119]

Some aphids show some of the traits of eusociality, joining insects such as ants, bees, and termites. However, there are differences between these sexual social insects and the clonal aphids, which are all descended from a single female parthenogenetically and share an identical genome. About fifty species of aphid, scattered among the closely related, host-alternating lineages Eriosomatinae and Hormaphidinae, have some type of defensive morph. These are gall-creating species, with the colony living and feeding inside a gall that they form in the host's tissues. Among the clonal population of these aphids, there may be several distinct morphs and this lays the foundation for a possible specialization of function, in this case, a defensive caste. The soldier morphs are mostly first and second instars with the third instar being involved in Eriosoma moriokense and only in Smythurodes betae are adult soldiers known. The hind legs of soldiers are clawed, heavily sclerotized and the stylets are robust making it possible to rupture and crush small predators. [120] The larval soldiers are altruistic individuals, unable to advance to breeding adults but acting permanently in the interests of the colony. Another requirement for the development of sociality is provided by the gall, a colonial home to be defended by the soldiers. [121]

The soldiers of gall-forming aphids also carry out the job of cleaning the gall. The honeydew secreted by the aphids is coated in a powdery wax to form "liquid marbles" [122] that the soldiers roll out of the gall through small orifices. [100] Aphids that form closed galls use the plant's vascular system for their plumbing: the inner surfaces of the galls are highly absorbent and wastes are absorbed and carried away by the plant. [100]

Pest status Edit

About 5000 species of aphid have been described and of these, some 450 species have colonized food and fiber crops. As direct feeders on plant sap, they damage crops and reduce yields, but they have a greater impact by being vectors of plant viruses. The transmission of these viruses depends on the movements of aphids between different parts of a plant, between nearby plants, and further afield. In this respect, the probing behavior of an aphid tasting a host is more damaging than lengthy aphid feeding and reproduction by stay-put individuals. The movement of aphids influences the timing of virus epidemics. [123]

Aphids, especially during large outbreaks, have been known to trigger allergic inhalant reactions in sensitive humans. [124]

Dispersal can be by walking or flight, appetitive dispersal, or by migration. Winged aphids are weak fliers, lose their wings after a few days and only fly by day. Dispersal by flight is affected by the impact, air currents, gravity, precipitation, and other factors, or dispersal may be accidental, caused by the movement of plant materials, animals, farm machinery, vehicles, or aircraft. [123]

Tahrirlashni boshqarish

Insecticide control of aphids is difficult, as they breed rapidly, so even small areas missed may enable the population to recover promptly. Aphids may occupy the undersides of leaves where spray misses them, while systemic insecticides do not move satisfactorily into flower petals. Finally, some aphid species are resistant to common insecticide classes including carbamates, organophosphates, and pyrethroids. [125]

For small backyard infestations, spraying plants thoroughly with a strong water jet every few days may be sufficient protection. An insecticidal soap solution can be an effective household remedy to control aphids, but it only kills aphids on contact and has no residual effect. Soap spray may damage plants, especially at higher concentrations or at temperatures above 32 °C (90 °F) some plant species are sensitive to soap sprays. [112] [126] [127]

Aphid populations can be sampled using yellow-pan or Moericke traps. These are yellow containers with water that attract aphids. [128] Aphids respond positively to green and their attraction to yellow may not be a true colour preference but related to brightness. Their visual receptors peak in sensitivity from 440 to 480 nm and are insensitive in the red region. Moericke found that aphids avoided landing on white coverings placed on soil and were repelled even more by shiny aluminium surfaces. [129] Integrated pest management of various species of aphids can be achieved using biological insecticides based on fungi such as Lecanicillium lecanii, Beauveria bassiana yoki Isaria fumosorosea. [130] Fungi are the main pathogens of aphids Entomophthorales can quickly cut aphid numbers in nature. [131]

Aphids may also be controlled by the release of natural enemies, in particular lady beetles and parasitoid wasps. However, since adult lady beetles tend to fly away within 48 hours after release, without laying eggs, repeated applications of large numbers of lady beetles are needed to be effective. For example, one large, heavily infested rose bush may take two applications of 1500 beetles each. [112] [132]

The ability to produce allomones such as farnesene to repel and disperse aphids and to attract their predators has been experimentally transferred to transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana plants using an Eβf synthase gene in the hope that the approach could protect transgenic crops. [133] Eβ farnesene has however found to be ineffective in crop situations although stabler synthetic forms help improve the effectiveness of control using fungal spores and insecticides through increased uptake caused by movements of aphids. [134]

In human culture Edit

Aphids are familiar to farmers and gardeners, mainly as pests. Peter Marren and Richard Mabey record that Gilbert White described an invading "army" of black aphids that arrived in his village of Selborne, Hampshire, England, in August 1774 in "great clouds", covering every plant, while in the unusually hot summer of 1783, White found that honeydew was so abundant as to "deface and destroy the beauties of my garden", though he thought the aphids were consuming rather than producing it. [135]

Infestation of the Chinese sumac (Rhus chinensis) by Chinese sumac aphids (Schlechtendalia chinensis) can create "Chinese galls" which are valued as a commercial product. As "Galla Chinensis", they are used in traditional Chinese medicine to treat coughs, diarrhoea, night sweats, dysentery and to stop intestinal and uterine bleeding. Chinese galls are also an important source of tannins. [29]


A tiny insect called the hemlock woolly adelgid is threatening the sustainability of the eastern hemlock in the United States. These insects are native to Japan and were introduced to the United States through vehicles carrying wood boxes. The invasive species in this scenario was introduced to the United States through which pathway?

For the students to answer the different set of questions, related to various subjects it is always better to concentrate on the factual and data knowledge, that helps them to cover the required topics.

In order to make sure, that they can understand the whole unit and the curriculum offered to them by their schools and institutions in the maximum possible manner.

Accidental transport of invasive species refers to their unintentional introduction with some other objects or living things. According to the given information, hemlock woolly adelgid was introduced in United States through vehicles carrying wood boxes. Here, vehicles were not contaminated with the insects but the boxes were. Hence, it is an example of accidental transport.


RoboBees: Autonomous Flying Microrobots

All areas for the use of RoboBees are available for licensing. Please contact us to learn more.

Want to license this technology?

All areas for the use of RoboBees are available for licensing. Please contact us to learn more.

Kredit: Garvard universitetining Vays instituti

Inspired by the biology of a bee, researchers at the Wyss Institute are developing RoboBees, manmade systems that could perform myriad roles in agriculture or disaster relief. A RoboBee measures about half the size of a paper clip, weighs less that one-tenth of a gram, and flies using “artificial muscles” compromised of materials that contract when a voltage is applied. Additional modifications allow some models of RoboBee to transition from swimming underwater to flying, as well as “perch” on surfaces using static electricity.

The masterminding of the RoboBee was motivated by the idea to develop autonomous micro-aerial vehicles capable of self-contained, self-directed flight and of achieving coordinated behavior in large groups. To that end, the RoboBee development is broadly divided into three main components: the Body, Brain, and Colony. Body development consists of constructing robotic insects able to fly on their own with the help of a compact and seamlessly integrated power source brain development is concerned with “smart” sensors and control electronics that mimic the eyes and antennae of a bee, and can sense and respond dynamically to the environment the Colony’s focus is about coordinating the behavior of many independent robots so they act as an effective unit.

It’s really only because of this lab’s recent breakthroughs in manufacturing, materials, and design that we have even been able to try this. And it just worked, spectacularly well.

Robert Wood Credit: Wyss Institute at Harvard University.

To construct RoboBees, researchers at the Wyss Institute have developed innovative manufacturing methods, so-called Pop-Up microelectromechanical (MEMs) technologies (please also see the Pop-Up MEMS technology page) that have already greatly expanded the boundaries of current robotics design and engineering.


Go Deeper

Joshua is a Digital Media Producer for KQED Science, and the Lead Producer and Cinematographer for Deep Look. After receiving his BS in Wildlife Biology from Ohio University, he went on to participate in marine mammal research for NOAA, USGS and the Intersea Foundation. He also served as the president of The Pacific Cetacean Group, a nonprofit organization dedicated to teaching students K-6 about whales. Josh studied science and natural history filmmaking at San Francisco State University and Montana State University.


Michigan insects in the garden – Week 3: Assassin bugs

A closer look at the little green bugs in your garden will tell you if they are friend or foe.

Zelus sp. nimfa. Photo by Nathaniel Walton, MSU Extension.

Assassin bugs belong to the insect order Hemiptera, which includes many insects both good and bad in our gardens. All the Hemiptera share one characteristic, a mouthpart designed to penetrate surfaces and feed on liquid foods. In the plant-feeding Hemiptera (e.g., aphids), this mouthpart is long and delicate enough to penetrate deep into plant tissues and extract carbohydrate-rich sap. In the assassin bugs (Family: Reduviidae), the mouthpart is short and stout, allowing it to penetrate the tough exoskeletons of other insects.

Assassin bug mouthpart, enlarged. Photo by Nathaniel Walton, MSU Extension.

Once it has penetrated the prey&rsquos exoskeleton, the mouthpart injects toxic saliva to break down the internal organs and other tissues of the victim. Finally, as though it were a tiny juice box, the assassin bug sucks the contents from the prey insect&rsquos body.

There are many different kinds of assassin bugs in Michigan, but one of the most commonly encountered in our yards and gardens is the tiny green immature (nymph) stage of those in the genus Zelus. The nymph stage of Zelus sp. is the overwintering stage, so you might encounter them in the springtime as well as in the fall. They could be easily mistaken for some plant-feeding insects such as the nymph stage of a katydid (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae).

However, assassin bugs are not feeding on the plants in the garden, rather they are helping out with pest control, so you would be wise to let them continue on its way if you come across one in your garden. The adult Zelus and the egg masses are less commonly encountered but will be present mid-summer in Michigan.

Zelus sp. eggs. Photo by Nathaniel Walton, MSU Extension. Zelus sp. adult. Photo by Nathaniel Walton, MSU Extension.

Two other common Michigan insects in the assassin bug family (Reduviidae) are the ambush bugs (Phymata spp.) and the masked hunter (Reduvius personatus). It takes a sharp eye to spot them, but ambush bugs are quite common residents of the inflorescences of plants in the family Asteraceae such as Joe-pye weed (Eupatorium sp.) and goldenrod (Solidago sp.). Unfortunately, these masters of camouflage are not choosy in their choice of flower-visiting prey and are just as likely to skewer a native bee as they are a pest insect with their deadly mouthpart.

An ambush bug (Phymata sp.) feeding on a sweat bee (Halictidae). Photo by Nathaniel Walton, MSU Extension.

The masked hunter is not a garden resident. This helpful houseguest eats small insects in and around our human dwellings. They hunt nocturnally and will often go unnoticed. However, if you do encounter one, it would be best to handle it with care. The mouthpart of all assassin bugs are just as capable of penetrating human skin as they are an insect exoskeleton, and they are not afraid to use it in self-defense. You can learn more about masked hunters and other common household insects from Michigan State University Extension by visiting the Insects and Arthropods section of the MSU Plant & Pest Diagnostics website.

Masked hunter adult (Reduvius personatus). Photo by Nathaniel Walton, MSU Extension.


Red bug

Tahririyatimiz siz yuborgan narsalarni ko'rib chiqadi va maqolani qayta ko'rib chiqish yoki yo'qligini aniqlaydi.

Red bug, deb ham ataladi Stainer, Firebug, yoki Pyrrhocorid Bug, any insect of the family Pyrrhocoridae (order Heteroptera), which contains more than 300 species. The red bug—a fairly common, gregarious, plant-feeding insect found mostly in the tropics and subtropics—is oval in shape and brightly coloured with red. It ranges in length from 8 to 18 mm (0.3 to 0.7 inch). Dimorphism, a condition in which two or more visibly different forms exist, may occur in some species (e.g., Pyrrhocoris apterus can be winged or wingless).

jins Dysdercus is one of the most destructive cotton pests in North America and India. This cotton stainer damages cotton plants by sucking the sap and destroys the cotton bolls by staining them with excrement. At one time small piles of sugarcane were put between rows of cotton and orange trees to attract the red bugs they were then destroyed with hot water. Now dusts and sprays are used for control. Not all red bugs are destructive. In India Dindymus larvae feed on termites, and the adults prey on flies.

This article was most recently revised and updated by Amy Tikkanen, Corrections Manager.


Rare bed bug re-emerges in Florida after 60 years

After disappearing for 60 years, the tropical bed bug has turned up in Florida — right here in Brevard County. And these nasty little creatures can spread faster than the ordinary variety bed bug, causing all the same havoc. Video by Local 6 11-10-16

The tropical bed bug is back after 60 years, and it's landed in Brevard. (Photo: UF/IFAS)

After disappearing for 60 years, the tropical bed bug has turned up in Florida — right here in Brevard County.

And these nasty little creatures can spread faster than the ordinary variety bed bug, causing all the same havoc and threat of widespread infestation throughout Florida and the South.

“This could mean that this species would develop more quickly, possibly cause an infestation problem sooner, and also could spread more rapidly,” Brittany Campbell, a UF doctoral student in entomology, said in a media release.

Campbell and her colleagues at the University of Florida's Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences confirmed the tropical bed bug's reemergence, which they recently documented in the journal Florida Entomologist.

No one had confirmed the tropical variety of bed bug in Florida since the 1930s and 1940s. But in 2015, a family in Merritt Island, near the Ulumay Wildlife Sanctuary, reported the tiny unwanted creatures had infested their home.

Cocoa Beach Public Library eradicates pesky bedbugs

The UF scientists confirmed the bugs were the tropical species, but so far, Brevard's is the only confirmed case in Florida.

"I personally believe that in Florida, we have all of the right conditions that could potentially help spread tropical bed bugs, which is the case in other southern states,” Campbell said. “As long as you have people traveling and moving bed bugs around, there is a real potential for this species to spread and establish in homes and other dwellings.”

Campbell coauthored the recent journal article about the tropical bed bug discovery in Brevard.

It's unknown how the bed bugs got here, but Campbell suspects it could have been via Port Canaveral.

"A lot of pests that do get into Florida, a lot of them do pop up in ports," she said. "We don't really know where these bed bugs were introduced from."

Indian River Lagoon cleanup tax passes in landslide

The UF researchers urge the public to send them samples of suspected bed bugs for identification, to try and nip the bug's spread in the bud.

The common bed bug lives throughout the United States and the globe, typically in more temperate climates. Before the 1990s, it kept at low levels for 50 years, via widespread use of DDT and other pesticides, the UF researchers say.

The bed bugs eventually bit back, building resistance to pesticides and resurging in the late 1990s.

A similar rebound may be at play with the tropical bed bug, the UF researchers say.

Tropical bed bugs biologically mirror common bed bugs, Campbell said. They feed on human blood, so they can cause similar health problems during severe infestations: fear, anxiety, depression, sleeplessness and itchy, blistery reactions on some people.

'Florida snow' returns to blanket the Space Coast

The UF researchers ask the public to send bed bug samples to their laboratory to identify the species.

“If they do have a bed bug infestation, because they are so difficult to control, I ask that people consult a pest-control company for a professional service," Campbell said. "There isn't as much research available on tropical bed bugs as common bed bugs, but hypothetically they should be able to be controlled the same way as the common bed bug species because their biology/behavior are similar.”

Nationwide, health and environmental officials warn of increasingly pesticide-resistant bed bugs and a "pandemic" creature comeback.

DDT nearly wiped out bedbugs after World War II, when people soaked mattresses in the pesticide. The bugs first were reported to show resistance in the 1950s. Then the U.S.

Environmental Protection Agency ban- ned DDT in 1972 because of concerns about cancer and birth defects.

Over the next two decades, Malathion almost took care of the bed bugs that survived DDT. But the wily creatures grew resistant.

In more recent years, they've grown more resistant to commonly used pesticides.

Contact Waymer at 321-242-3663 or [email protected] Follow him on [email protected] and at facebook.com/jim.waymer

To learn about bed bugs, visit http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/topic_bedbugs

If you want to get bed bugs identified, call the Brevard County Extension at 633-1702 or you can mail the bugs in a small vial (preferred so they don't get crushed) or in a ziplock bag, to Brittany Campbell, 1881 Natural Area Drive, Gainesville, FL 32611.


How to Catch Small Bugs

This article was co-authored by Kevin Carrillo. Kevin Carrillo is a Pest Control Specialist and the Senior Project Manager for MMPC, a pest control service and certified Minority-owned Business Enterprise (MBE) based in the New York City area. MMPC is certified by the industry’s leading codes and practices, including the National Pest Management Association (NPMA), QualityPro, GreenPro, and The New York Pest Management Association (NYPMA). MMPC's work has been featured in CNN, NPR, and ABC News.

Ushbu maqolada keltirilgan 7 ta havola mavjud, ularni sahifaning pastki qismida topishingiz mumkin.

wikiHow maqolasi o'quvchilar tomonidan ijobiy baholanganidan so'ng, o'quvchi tomonidan ma'qullangan deb belgilanadi. Bunday holda, bir nechta o'quvchilar ushbu maqola ular uchun foydali bo'lganini aytib, bizning o'quvchilarimiz tomonidan ma'qullangan maqomini olish uchun yozgan.

This article has been viewed 122,848 times.

Catching small bugs can seem like an exercise in futility. They are everywhere, but as soon as you try to focus on them they dart into impossible to reach corners or underground. Small bugs are everywhere, and if you know where to look and what basic traps to lay, you can grow your collection quickly.


Videoni tomosha qiling: Краснодарский край переживает нашествие мраморных клопов. (Sentyabr 2022).